How to format your references using the Early Human Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Human Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.W. Lyons, Ocean science. Ironing out ocean chemistry at the dawn of animal life, Science. 321 (2008) 923–924.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Goodell, T.A. Rando, Stem cells and healthy aging, Science. 350 (2015) 1199–1204.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Bertet, L. Sulak, T. Lecuit, Myosin-dependent junction remodelling controls planar cell intercalation and axis elongation, Nature. 429 (2004) 667–671.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.R. Silliman, J. van de Koppel, M.D. Bertness, L.E. Stanton, I.A. Mendelssohn, Drought, snails, and large-scale die-off of southern U.S. salt marshes, Science. 310 (2005) 1803–1806.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Krings, R.R. Braham, Guide to Tendrillate Climbers of Costa Rican Mountains, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
M.S. Obaidat, G.A. Tsihrintzis, J. Filipe, eds., e-Business and Telecommunications: 7th International Joint Conference, ICETE 2010, Athens, Greece, July 26-28, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M.N. Amorim, A. Ferreira, L. Meira-Machado, Micro-Analysis of Mortality in Urban Areas. The Parish of Oliveira in Guimarães, in Northern Portugal Between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries, in: D. Ramiro Fariñas, M. Oris (Eds.), New Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 77–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Human Development.

Blog post
J. Fang, Wolves Cooperate With Each Other, Dogs Form Hierarchies, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: FAA Should Improve Usability of its Online Application System and Clarity of the Pilot’s Medical Form, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.R. Carver, CMO: Chief Marketing Officer or chief “marginalized” officer, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Belarus: Journalists Sentenced, New York Times. (2002) A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Human Development
AbbreviationEarly Hum. Dev.
ISSN (print)0378-3782
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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