How to format your references using the Early Human Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Human Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Meselson, Retrospective. Paul Mead Doty (1920-2011), Science. 335 (2012) 181.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Falzarano, H. Feldmann, Virology. Delineating Ebola entry, Science. 347 (2015) 947–948.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.A. Davidson, S.E. Trumbore, R. Amundson, Soil warming and organic carbon content, Nature. 408 (2000) 789–790.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Iyengar, M.A. Diverse-Pierluissi, S.L. Jenkins, A.M. Chan, L.A. Devi, E.A. Sobie, A.T. Ting, D.C. Weinstein, Inquiry learning. Integrating content detail and critical reasoning by peer review, Science. 319 (2008) 1189–1190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Krings, R.R. Braham, Guide to Tendrillate Climbers of Costa Rican Mountains, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
P. Macheras, Modeling in Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Approaches, 2nd ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Johansson, P. Donner, Emanation of Environmental Issues and Regional Responses, in: P. Donner (Ed.), The Shipping Industry, Ocean Governance and Environmental Law in the Paradigm Shift: In Search of a Pragmatic Balance for the Arctic, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 61–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Human Development.

Blog post
J. Davis, Babies Born By Caesarean More Likely To Develop Obesity, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Unmanned Aerial Systems: Status of Test Sites and International Developments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.N. Seesengood, Analysis of the Repairability of Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Fashion Goes Farm to Table, New York Times. (2010) E8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Human Development
AbbreviationEarly Hum. Dev.
ISSN (print)0378-3782
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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