How to format your references using the Early Human Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Human Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Raymond, Sexist attitudes: Most of us are biased, Nature. 495 (2013) 33–34.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.I. Glazman, R.C. Ashoori, Physics. Coupling qubits by waves on the electron sea, Science. 304 (2004) 524–525.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.P. Spencer, E. Dineva, L.B. Smith, Comment on “Infants’’ perseverative search errors are induced by pragmatic misinterpretation",” Science. 325 (2009) 1624; author reply 1624.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.E.E. Oldfield, R.J. Smith, S.R. Harrop, N. Leader-Williams, Field sports and conservation in the United Kingdom, Nature. 423 (2003) 531–533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Ferguson, B. Schneier, T. Kohno, Cryptography Engineering, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, 2015.
An edited book
K. Madani, A. Dourado, A. Rosa, J. Filipe, eds., Computational Intelligence: Revised and Selected Papers of the International Joint Conference, IJCCI 2011, Paris, France, October 24-26, 2011, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Nunes, Improving the Design and Modularity of BDI Agents with Capability Relationships, in: F. Dalpiaz, J. Dix, M.B. van Riemsdijk (Eds.), Engineering Multi-Agent Systems: Second International Workshop, EMAS 2014, Paris, France, May 5-6, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 58–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Human Development.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, From Creepy Clowns To The Dancing Plague – When Phobias Are Contagious, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Comments on H.R. 6228, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.W. Tan, A pedagogical approach to selected études from Étude en douze exercices, S.136 and Études d ’exécution transcendante, S.139 by Franz Liszt, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Ask for a Taco, Not For Lucinda, New York Times. (2008) NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Human Development
AbbreviationEarly Hum. Dev.
ISSN (print)0378-3782
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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