How to format your references using the Journal of Quantitative Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Quantitative Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chesebro B (2004) Biomedicine. A fresh look at BSE. Science 305:1918–1921
A journal article with 2 authors
Ortíz-Barrientos D, Noor MAF (2005) Evidence for a one-allele assortative mating locus. Science 310:1467
A journal article with 3 authors
Rabitz HA, Hsieh MM, Rosenthal CM (2004) Quantum optimally controlled transition landscapes. Science 303:1998–2001
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hu X, Boccaletti S, Huang W, et al (2014) Exact solution for first-order synchronization transition in a generalized Kuramoto model. Sci Rep 4:7262

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Likhtenshtein G (2012) Solar Energy Conversion. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Shoniregun CA (2008) Securing Biometrics Applications. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Fells R, Prowse P (2016) Negotiations in the Workplace: Overcoming the Problem of Asymmetry. In: Elgoibar P, Euwema M, Munduate L (eds) Building Trust and Constructive Conflict Management in Organizations. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Highly Efficient And Ultra-Cheap Perovskite Solar Cells Announced. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Hubble Space Telescope. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ross TA (2008) The surgical technologist learning partnership: A comparison of factors in a preceptor relationship. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McNAMARA J (2017) Swift Beyond Satire. New York Times BR20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chesebro 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chesebro 2004; Ortíz-Barrientos and Noor 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ortíz-Barrientos and Noor 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Quantitative Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Quant. Criminol.
ISSN (print)0748-4518
ISSN (online)1573-7799
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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