How to format your references using the Journal of Quantitative Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Quantitative Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schimel D (2006) Ecology. Climate change and crop yields: beyond Cassandra. Science 312:1889–1890
A journal article with 2 authors
Gonnermann HM, Manga M (2003) Explosive volcanism may not be an inevitable consequence of magma fragmentation. Nature 426:432–435
A journal article with 3 authors
Bai T, Pollard DD, Gao H (2000) Explanation for fracture spacing in layered materials. Nature 403:753–756
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mikołajczyk-Stecyna J, Korcz A, Gabriel M, et al (2013) Risk factors in abdominal aortic aneurysm and in Polish population aortoiliac occlusive disease and differences between them [corrected]. Sci Rep 3:3528

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaltashov IA, Eyles SJ (2005) Mass Spectrometry in Biophysics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Delgado JMPQ (2013) Hygrothermal Numerical Simulation Tools Applied to Building Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Tews E, Wälde J, Weiner M (2012) Breaking DVB-CSA. In: Armknecht F, Lucks S (eds) Research in Cryptology: 4th Western European Workshop, WEWoRC 2011, Weimar, Germany, July 20-22, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Galactico Christiano Ronaldo Has The Earliest Stars In The Universe Named After Him. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Space Station: Improving NASA’s Planning for External Maintenance. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vestergaard EV (2015) The shadow in Latvian mythological legends: A Jungian perspective. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L (2017) On What He Really Said, and Whom He Is Blaming for It. New York Times A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schimel 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gonnermann and Manga 2003; Schimel 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gonnermann and Manga 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Mikołajczyk-Stecyna et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Quantitative Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Quant. Criminol.
ISSN (print)0748-4518
ISSN (online)1573-7799
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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