How to format your references using the Journal of Quantitative Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Quantitative Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grant PM (2000) Superconductivity. Currents without borders. Nature 407:139–141
A journal article with 2 authors
Poucet B, Sargolini F (2013) Neuroscience. A trace of your place. Science 340:35–36
A journal article with 3 authors
Jaffer H, Adjei IM, Labhasetwar V (2013) Optical imaging to map blood-brain barrier leakage. Sci Rep 3:3117
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Soares-Filho BS, Nepstad DC, Curran LM, et al (2006) Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440:520–523

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stein PD (2016) Pulmonary Embolism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hsu Y-S (ed) (2015) Development of Science Teachers’ TPACK: East Asian Practices. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Burgoyne JA, Wild J, Fujinaga I (2013) Compositional Data Analysis of Harmonic Structures in Popular Music. In: Yust J, Wild J, Burgoyne JA (eds) Mathematics and Computation in Music: 4th International Conference, MCM 2013, Montreal, QC, Canada, June 12-14, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 52–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Cuba Has A Lung Cancer Vaccine, And Now It Could Be Coming To The USA. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Digital Television Transition: Preliminary Information on Initial Consumer Education Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ly L (2017) Performance Appraisal in a Family Business. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) A Second Case on Detainees Complicates Supreme Court Deliberations. New York Times A14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grant 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Grant 2000; Poucet and Sargolini 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poucet and Sargolini 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Soares-Filho et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Quantitative Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Quant. Criminol.
ISSN (print)0748-4518
ISSN (online)1573-7799
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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