How to format your references using the Journal of Quantitative Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Quantitative Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz L (2015) Animal behaviour: Nested instincts. Nature 521:S60-1
A journal article with 2 authors
Emery NJ, Clayton NS (2004) The mentality of crows: convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes. Science 306:1903–1907
A journal article with 3 authors
González MC, Hidalgo CA, Barabási A-L (2008) Understanding individual human mobility patterns. Nature 453:779–782
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhu J, Zhang J, Xu H, et al (2014) Pressure-induced reversal between thermal contraction and expansion in ferroelectric PbTiO3. Sci Rep 4:3700

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) (2011) Supplemental Proceedings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Staines HM, Krishna S (eds) (2012) Treatment and Prevention of Malaria: Antimalarial Drug Chemistry, Action and Use. Springer, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Hutchinson TA, Brawer JR (2011) The Challenge of Medical Dichotomies and the Congruent Physician–Patient Relationship in Medicine. In: Hutchinson TA (ed) Whole Person Care: A New Paradigm for the 21st Century. Springer, New York, NY, pp 31–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Watch Live As ESA Attempts To Land On Mars. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/watch-live-as-esa-attempts-to-land-on-mars/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Comments on Proposed F.P.M.R. Amendment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Esmaili G (2006) Application of Advanced Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Sources and Hybrid Generating Systems. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo K (2014) Tom Allen on His 32-Country Solo Bike Ride and the Video He Made About It. New York Times TR3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Emery and Clayton 2004; Gravitz 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Emery and Clayton 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Quantitative Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Quant. Criminol.
ISSN (print)0748-4518
ISSN (online)1573-7799
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
Law

Other styles