How to format your references using the Journal of Quantitative Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Quantitative Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S (2003) Finding your way. Nature 425:209
A journal article with 2 authors
Majmudar TS, Behringer RP (2005) Contact force measurements and stress-induced anisotropy in granular materials. Nature 435:1079–1082
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhai M, Zhao G, Zhang Q (2002) Is the Dongwanzi complex an Archean ophiolite? Science 295:923
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fadó R, Moubarak RS, Miñano-Molina AJ, et al (2013) X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein negatively regulates neuronal differentiation through interaction with cRAF and Trk. Sci Rep 3:2397

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burrell DB (2011) Towards a Jewish-Christian-Muslim Theology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Dezawa A, Chen P-Q, Chung J-Y (eds) (2005) State of the Art for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. Springer, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Gaudou B, Herzig A, Lorini E, Sibertin-Blanc C (2012) How to Do Social Simulation in Logic: Modelling the Segregation Game in a Dynamic Logic of Assignments. In: Villatoro D, Sabater-Mir J, Sichman JS (eds) Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XII: International Workshop, MABS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2-6, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 59–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) How The Whale Got Its Baleen. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Proposal for Replacement of Indian Health Service Hospital. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabano JG (2013) How Former Division I Student-Athletes Experienced Their Dual Undergraduate Roles: The Internal Competition for an Identity. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2015) Hispanic Contingent in Congress Asks Treasury to Prevent ‘Catastrophe’ in Puerto Rico. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buckingham 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Buckingham 2003; Majmudar and Behringer 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Majmudar and Behringer 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Fadó et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Quantitative Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Quant. Criminol.
ISSN (print)0748-4518
ISSN (online)1573-7799
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles