How to format your references using the Journal of Quantitative Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Quantitative Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lieberman Aiden E (2011) GE Prize essay. Zoom! Science 334:1222–1223
A journal article with 2 authors
Lefèvre F, Forget F (2009) Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics. Nature 460:720–723
A journal article with 3 authors
Castelnovo C, Moessner R, Sondhi SL (2008) Magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Nature 451:42–45
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nishitani H, Lygerou Z, Nishimoto T, Nurse P (2000) The Cdt1 protein is required to license DNA for replication in fission yeast. Nature 404:625–628

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Subramanian MN (2013) Plastics Additives and Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Donelli G (ed) (2016) Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health: Volume 4. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Sharan Y (2007) The Bioterrorism Threat. In: Green MS, Zenilman J, Cohen D, et al. (eds) Risk Assessment and Risk Communication Strategies in Bioterrorism Preparedness. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 45–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Study Provides Insight Into The Recovery Of Consciousness After Anesthesia. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Automobile Weight and Safety. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oparnica D (2013) The role of nurses in health care reform: A project report. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Trying to Decipher the Justices on the Current State of the Death Penalty. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lieberman Aiden 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lefèvre and Forget 2009; Lieberman Aiden 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lefèvre and Forget 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishitani et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Quantitative Criminology
AbbreviationJ. Quant. Criminol.
ISSN (print)0748-4518
ISSN (online)1573-7799
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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