How to format your references using the Soil Biology and Biochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soil Biology and Biochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willoughby, H.E., 2007. Atmosphere. Forecasting hurricane intensity and impacts. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315, 1232–1233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Okamoto, N., Inouye, I., 2005. A secondary symbiosis in progress? Science (New York, N.Y.) 310, 287.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rainville, S., Thompson, J.K., Pritchard, D.E., 2004. An ion balance for ultra-high-precision atomic mass measurements. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303, 334–338.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Celler, K., Hödl, I., Simone, A., Battin, T.J., Picioreanu, C., 2014. A mass-spring model unveils the morphogenesis of phototrophic Diatoma biofilms. Scientific Reports 4, 3649.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor, W., 2009. Making RTI Work. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA.
An edited book
Euzenat, J., 2007. Ontology Matching. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Weir, T., Manter, D., Kofer, W., 2011. Microbes: A New Frontier in Tropical Chemical Biology, in: Vivanco, J.M., Weir, T. (Eds.), Chemical Biology of the Tropics: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Signaling and Communication in Plants. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 71–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soil Biology and Biochemistry.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. The Winners Of The 2016 Underwater Photography Competition Are Absolutely Amazing [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. Examination of Grants Awarded to the Berkeley Unified School District and to Bilingual Children’s Television, Inc (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Usborne, E.L., 2012. Sediment and phosphorus dynamics behind weirs in agricultural drainage ditches (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Justices Raise Doubts on Campaign Finance Law. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willoughby, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Okamoto and Inouye, 2005; Willoughby, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Okamoto and Inouye, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Celler et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoil Biology and Biochemistry
AbbreviationSoil Biol. Biochem.
ISSN (print)0038-0717
ScopeSoil Science

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