How to format your references using the Soil Biology and Biochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soil Biology and Biochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King, M.-C., 2014. “The race” to clone BRCA1. Science (New York, N.Y.) 343, 1462–1465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strausberg, R.L., Schreiber, S.L., 2003. From knowing to controlling: a path from genomics to drugs using small molecule probes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300, 294–295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karan, S., Jiang, Z., Livingston, A.G., 2015. MEMBRANE FILTRATION. Sub-10 nm polyamide nanofilms with ultrafast solvent transport for molecular separation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 348, 1347–1351.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cohen, G.L., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., Master, A., 2006. Reducing the racial achievement gap: a social-psychological intervention. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313, 1307–1310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinelli, R.J., Waddell, J.M., Rahschulte, T.J., 2014. Program Management for Improved Business Results. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Frühwirth-Schnatter, S., Bitto, A., Kastner, G., Posekany, A. (Eds.), 2015. Bayesian Statistics from Methods to Models and Applications: Research from BAYSM 2014, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Michels, J., Appel, E., Gorb, S.N., 2016. Resilin – The Pliant Protein, in: Cohen, E., Moussian, B. (Eds.), Extracellular Composite Matrices in Arthropods, Extracellular and Supporting Structures. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 89–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soil Biology and Biochemistry.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Magic mushrooms expand your mind and amplify your brain’s dreaming areas – here’s how [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL’s-dreaming-areas-–-here’s-how/ (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Telecommunications: Research and Regulatory Efforts on Mobile Phone Health Issues (No. GAO-01-545). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lansdon, J., 2010. A policy analysis of California’s three strikes law of 1994 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J., 2017. Irma’s Shifting Forecasts: Probability and Uncertainty, With Room for Improvement. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (King, 2014; Strausberg and Schreiber, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strausberg and Schreiber, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Cohen et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoil Biology and Biochemistry
AbbreviationSoil Biol. Biochem.
ISSN (print)0038-0717
ScopeSoil Science

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