How to format your references using the Journal of Propulsion and Power citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Propulsion and Power. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sinclair, D. A. “Cell Biology. An Age of Instability.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 301, No. 5641, 2003, pp. 1859–1860.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman, J. R., and Nunnari, J. “Mitochondrial Form and Function.” Nature, Vol. 505, No. 7483, 2014, pp. 335–343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Osta, M. A., Christophides, G. K., and Kafatos, F. C. “Effects of Mosquito Genes on Plasmodium Development.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 303, No. 5666, 2004, pp. 2030–2032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
DeRussy, B. M., Aylward, M. A., Fan, Z., Ray, P. C., and Tandon, R. “Inhibition of Cytomegalovirus Infection and Photothermolysis of Infected Cells Using Bioconjugated Gold Nanoparticles.” Scientific reports, Vol. 4, 2014, p. 5550.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parke, R. D. Future Families. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
Daniilidis, K., and Klette, R., Eds. Imaging Beyond the Pinhole Camera. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Thornalley, P. J., and Rabbani, N. Thiamine in Diabetic Renal Disease: Dietary Insufficiency, Renal Washout, Antistress Gene Response, Therapeutic Supplements, Risk Predictor, and Link to Genetic Susceptibility. In Studies on Renal Disorders (T. Miyata, K.-U. Eckardt, and M. Nangaku, eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2011, pp. 93–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Propulsion and Power.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Bobby Pin Found Piercing Child’s Kidney. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Spectrum Management: FCC’s Licensing Approach in the 11, 18, and 23 Gigahertz Bands Currently Supports Spectrum Availability and Efficiency. Publication GAO-13-78R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker, M. C. A Descriptive Study of the View from the Top: Perspectives of Experts in Continuing Medical Education. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. “Gertrude of Arabia.” New York Times, Apr 06, 2017, p. C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Propulsion and Power
AbbreviationJ. Propuls. Power
ISSN (print)0748-4658
ISSN (online)1533-3876
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Fuel Technology
Aerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles