How to format your references using the Journal of Propulsion and Power citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Propulsion and Power. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herrling, P., “Patent Sense,” Nature, Vol. 449, No. 7159, 2007, pp. 174–175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Manoli, D. S., and Baker, B. S., “Median Bundle Neurons Coordinate Behaviours during Drosophila Male Courtship,” Nature, Vol. 430, No. 6999, 2004, pp. 564–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyko, F., Ramsahoye, B. H., and Jaenisch, R., “DNA Methylation in Drosophila Melanogaster,” Nature, Vol. 408, No. 6812, 2000, pp. 538–540.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Burchardt, S., Troll, V. R., Mathieu, L., Emeleus, H. C., and Donaldson, C. H., “Ardnamurchan 3D Cone-Sheet Architecture Explained by a Single Elongate Magma Chamber,” Scientific reports, Vol. 3, 2013, p. 2891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tavakoli, J. M., “Structured Finance and Collateralized Debt Obligations,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
Jin, S., and Barzaghi, R., Eds., “IGFS 2014: Proceedings of the 3rd International Gravity Field Service (IGFS), Shanghai, China, June 30 - July 6, 2014,” Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kirchschlaeger, P. G., “To What Extent Should the State Protect Human Beings from Themselves?,” Nudging - Possibilities, Limitations and Applications in European Law and Economics, edited by K. Mathis and A. Tor, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016, pp. 59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Propulsion and Power.

Blog post
Andrew, E., “Southern Stars: The Decade Ahead For Australian Astronomy,” IFLScience, IFLScience, Aug 24 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Surface Transportation: Financing Program Could Benefit from Increased Performance Focus and Better Communication,” GAO-12-641, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, June 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wall, J. D., “The Effects of Acute L-Dopa on Brux-like and Masticatory Motor Patterns: EMG Phase Analysis in Rats,” Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., “Film Series,” New York Times, Apr 13 2017, p. C27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Propulsion and Power
AbbreviationJ. Propuls. Power
ISSN (print)0748-4658
ISSN (online)1533-3876
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Fuel Technology
Aerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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