How to format your references using the Journal of Propulsion and Power citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Propulsion and Power. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reis e Sousa, C., “Immunology. Eating in to avoid infection,” Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 315, Mar. 2007, pp. 1376–1377.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang, L.-L., and Perc, M., “Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups,” Scientific reports, vol. 3, 2013, p. 2483.
A journal article with 3 authors
Niemeier, D., Gombachika, H., and Richards-Kortum, R., “How to transform the practice of engineering to meet global health needs,” Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 345, Sep. 2014, pp. 1287–1290.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stoykovich, M. P., Müller, M., Kim, S. O., Solak, H. H., Edwards, E. W., de Pablo, J. J., and Nealey, P. F., “Directed assembly of block copolymer blends into nonregular device-oriented structures,” Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 308, Jun. 2005, pp. 1442–1446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eicker, U., Solar Technologies for Buildings, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Kawano, Y., and Mosca, M., eds., Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication, and Cryptography: Third Workshop, TQC 2008 Tokyo, Japan, January 30 - February 1, 2008. Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Alsaleh, M., and Adams, C., “Enhancing Consumer Privacy in the Liberty Alliance Identity Federation and Web Services Frameworks,” Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 6th International Workshop, PET 2006, Cambridge, UK, June 28-30, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, G. Danezis and P. Golle, eds., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, pp. 59–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Propulsion and Power.

Blog post
Andrew, E., “How To Protect Planes And Passengers From Explosions On The Surface Of The Sun,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Review of Selected Computer System Procurements, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren, P. D., “Characterizing polymers for cardiovascular devices,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J., “Keeping a Sunny Spirit in the Face of Hardship,” New York Times, Jan. 2017, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Propulsion and Power
AbbreviationJ. Propuls. Power
ISSN (print)0748-4658
ISSN (online)1533-3876
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Fuel Technology
Aerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles