How to format your references using the Journal of Propulsion and Power citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Propulsion and Power. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Betz, A. G., “Immunology. Have you seen your mother, baby.,” Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 330, Dec. 2010, pp. 1635–1636.
A journal article with 2 authors
McMichael, A., and Klenerman, P., “HIV/AIDS. HLA leaves its footprints on HIV,” Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 296, May 2002, pp. 1410–1411.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qin, Z., Pugno, N. M., and Buehler, M. J., “Mechanics of fragmentation of crocodile skin and other thin films,” Scientific reports, vol. 4, May 2014, p. 4966.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, M., Ding, J., Gu, H., Zhang, Y., Pan, S., Xu, N., Chen, H., and Li, H., “Facilitated diffusion of acetonitrile revealed by quantitative breath analysis using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,” Scientific reports, vol. 3, Feb. 2013, p. 1205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allen, M. W., Michael Allen’s Guide to e-Learning, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
Davim, J. P., ed., Machining of Hard Materials, London: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Allemand-Giorgis, L., Bonneau, G.-P., Hahmann, S., and Vivodtzev, F., “Piecewise Polynomial Monotonic Interpolation of 2D Gridded Data,” Topological and Statistical Methods for Complex Data: Tackling Large-Scale, High-Dimensional, and Multivariate Data Spaces, J. Bennett, F. Vivodtzev, and V. Pascucci, eds., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015, pp. 73–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Propulsion and Power.

Blog post
Andrews, R., “New Funeral Service Dissolves Dead People And Dumps Remains Into Sewer,” IFLScience Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Health Information Technology: More Detailed Plans Needed for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Redesigned BioSense Program, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Okada, H., “Modulation of BACE1 by a novel sorting nexin in Alzheimer’s disease,” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., and Almosawa, S., “Somali Migrants’ Trek Becomes Scene of Horror,” New York Times, Mar. 2017, p. A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Propulsion and Power
AbbreviationJ. Propuls. Power
ISSN (print)0748-4658
ISSN (online)1533-3876
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Fuel Technology
Aerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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