How to format your references using the Journal of Propulsion and Power citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Propulsion and Power. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gifford, D. K. “Blazing Pathways through Genetic Mountains.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 293, No. 5537, 2001, pp. 2049–2051.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider, R., and Persson, S. “PLANT SCIENCE. Another Brick in the Wall.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 350, No. 6257, 2015, pp. 156–157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Catling, D. C., Zahnle, K. J., and McKay, C. “Biogenic Methane, Hydrogen Escape, and the Irreversible Oxidation of Early Earth.” Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 293, No. 5531, 2001, pp. 839–843.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yogodzinski, G. M., Lees, J. M., Churikova, T. G., Dorendorf, F., Wöerner, G., and Volynets, O. N. “Geochemical Evidence for the Melting of Subducting Oceanic Lithosphere at Plate Edges.” Nature, Vol. 409, No. 6819, 2001, pp. 500–504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huber, P. J. Data Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Rattan, S. I. S., and Hayflick, L., Eds. Cellular Ageing and Replicative Senescence. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Buchholz, T. A., Madary, D. A., Bork, D., and Younos, T. Stream Restoration in Urban Environments: Concept, Design Principles, and Case Studies of Stream Daylighting. In Sustainable Water Management in Urban Environments (T. Younos and T. E. Parece, eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016, pp. 121–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Propulsion and Power.

Blog post
Andrew, E. HIV Reappears In Second Baby Thought To Be Cured. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA’s Proposed Plan for Implementing a Reliability Centered Maintenance Process for Air Traffic Control Equipment. Publication GAO-07-81R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walker, M. Industry - Higher Education Partnerships: A Case Study Analysis of Learning Together. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leonhardt, D. “All for the 1%, 1% for All.” New York Times, May 02, 2014, p. MM23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Propulsion and Power
AbbreviationJ. Propuls. Power
ISSN (print)0748-4658
ISSN (online)1533-3876
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Fuel Technology
Aerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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