How to format your references using the Journal of Population Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Population Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman WE (2013) Plant science. One genome, two ontogenies. Science 339:1045–1046
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu X, Norell MA (2004) A new troodontid dinosaur from China with avian-like sleeping posture. Nature 431:838–841
A journal article with 3 authors
Fu Q, Saltsburg H, Flytzani-Stephanopoulos M (2003) Active nonmetallic Au and Pt species on ceria-based water-gas shift catalysts. Science 301:935–938
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yamamoto E, Akimoto T, Yasui M, Yasuoka K (2014) Origin of subdiffusion of water molecules on cell membrane surfaces. Sci Rep 4:4720

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shreves R, Dunwoodie B (2011) Drupal® 7 Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Zeggini E, Morris A (eds) (2015) Assessing Rare Variation in Complex Traits: Design and Analysis of Genetic Studies, 1st ed. 2015. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Grigorian A, Frank PN, Benharash P (2015) Chest Pain, Diaphoresis, and Nausea. In: de Virgilio C, Frank PN, Grigorian A (eds) Surgery: A Case Based Clinical Review. Springer, New York, NY, pp 47–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Population Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) Asteroids most likely Delivered Water To The Moon – Here’s How We Cracked It. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Department of the Interior: Bureau of Reclamation Aircraft Should Be Centrally Managed Like Other Interior Aircraft. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Radcliffe ML (2012) Random Graphs with Attribute Affinity. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Doran M (2017) A Trump Plan for the Middle East? New York Times A29

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Xu and Norell 2004; Friedman 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu and Norell 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamamoto et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Population Economics
AbbreviationJ. Popul. Econ.
ISSN (print)0933-1433
ISSN (online)1432-1475
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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