How to format your references using the Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody, H. (2014). Cancer. Nature 509, S49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller, J., and Müller, C. W. (2014). Structural biology: Enzyme-chromatin complex visualized. Nature 514, 572–573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dvorak, M., Oswald, W., and Wu, Z. (2013). Bandgap opening by patterning graphene. Sci. Rep. 3, 2289.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boillée, S., Yamanaka, K., Lobsiger, C. S., Copeland, N. G., Jenkins, N. A., Kassiotis, G., et al. (2006). Onset and progression in inherited ALS determined by motor neurons and microglia. Science 312, 1389–1392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maguire, L., and Smith, E. (2012). 30 Great Myths about Shakespeare. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Sukul, N. C. (2005). High Dilution Effects: Physical and Biochemical Basis. , ed. A. Sukul Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hazzan, O., and Dubinsky, Y. (2008). “Time Time Time,” in Agile Software Engineering Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science., ed. Y. Dubinsky (London: Springer), 1–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Pigs Shot In The Head For Science. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). To Date, DISH Network Is Cooperating with the Court-Appointed Special Master’s Examination of Its Compliance with the Section 119 Statutory License. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rahmani, M. (2017). On the calculation of time-domain impulse-response of systems from band-limited scattering-parameters using wavelet transform.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000). The Way We Live Now: 8-13-00: ShopTalk; Put Me In, Dad. New York Times, 622.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brody, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brody, 2014; Müller and Müller, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller and Müller, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Boillée et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles