How to format your references using the Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robock, A. (2011). Nuclear winter is a real and present danger. Nature 473, 275–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bengtson, S., and Rasmussen, B. (2009). Paleontology. New and ancient trace makers. Science 323, 346–347.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nelson, W. A., Bjørnstad, O. N., and Yamanaka, T. (2013). Recurrent insect outbreaks caused by temperature-driven changes in system stability. Science 341, 796–799.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Donley, E. A., Claussen, N. R., Cornish, S. L., Roberts, J. L., Cornell, E. A., and Wieman, C. E. (2001). Dynamics of collapsing and exploding Bose-Einstein condensates. Nature 412, 295–299.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eichhorn, M. P. (2016). Natural Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Quarteroni, A. (2010). Calcul Scientifique: Cours, exercices corrigés et illustrations en MATLAB et Octave. Deuxième édition. , eds. P. Gervasio and F. Saleri Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Buatois, L. A., Labandeira, C. C., Mángano, M. G., Cohen, A., and Voigt, S. (2016). “The Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution,” in The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events: Volume 2: Mesozoic and Cenozoic Topics in Geobiology., eds. M. G. Mángano and L. A. Buatois (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 179–263.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2015). Cosmic Growing Pains Are Making This Young Star Get Bigger In Bursts. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975). Follow Through: Lessons Learned From Its Evaluation and Need To Improve Its Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stoecker, K. (2013). Transfer of Topic-Prominence in Chinese-English Interlanguage.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2016). A Hockey Luminary Glowed With Modesty. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robock, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bengtson and Rasmussen, 2009; Robock, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bengtson and Rasmussen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Donley et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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