How to format your references using the Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingerich, O. (2010). Brian Marsden (1937-2010). Nature 468, 1042.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheehan, M. J., and Tibbetts, E. A. (2011). Specialized face learning is associated with individual recognition in paper wasps. Science 334, 1272–1275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Millonig, J. H., Millen, K. J., and Hatten, M. E. (2000). The mouse Dreher gene Lmx1a controls formation of the roof plate in the vertebrate CNS. Nature 403, 764–769.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garabato, A. C. N., Polzin, K. L., King, B. A., Heywood, K. J., and Visbeck, M. (2004). Widespread intense turbulent mixing in the Southern Ocean. Science 303, 210–213.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Gumster, J., and Shimonski, R. (2010). GIMP Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Guerraggio, A. (2013). Vito Volterra. , ed. G. Paoloni Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ergin, N., Yoruk, G., and Ozdemir, O. (2014). “Production of $$\mathrm{Ni}_{3}$ Ni 3 Al and $\mathrm{Ti}_{3}$$ Ti 3 Al Based Coating by Using Pressure Assisted Combustion Synthesis,” in International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress: Proceedings of InterM, Antalya, Turkey, October 10–13, 2013 Springer Proceedings in Physics., eds. E. K. Polychroniadis, A. Y. Oral, and M. Ozer (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). ‘Rubber Hand’ Illusion May Build Understanding of Sensory Processing In Autistic Brains. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972). Teacher Corps Programs Operated by the Buffalo State University College, the New York University, and the Harlem Institute for Teachers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, R. E. (2010). From Hart to Hammerstein: The music of Richard Rodgers and his evolution toward the integrated musical.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). A Thick Résumé for a Tough Job. New York Times, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gingerich, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gingerich, 2010; Sheehan and Tibbetts, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sheehan and Tibbetts, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Garabato et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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