How to format your references using the Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe, M. (2003). Part-time teaching: benefitting as a part-time teacher. Nature 424, 110–111.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ochman, H., and Davalos, L. M. (2006). The nature and dynamics of bacterial genomes. Science 311, 1730–1733.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy, I., Peters, S. E., and Fischer, W. W. (2012). Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle. Science 337, 331–334.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang, B., Chen, Y., Zhao, Y., and Bruick, R. K. (2007). JMJD6 is a histone arginine demethylase. Science 318, 444–447.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pischella, M., and Le Ruyet, D. (2015). Digital Communications 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abbas, A. E. ed. (2015). Interventional Cardiology Imaging: An Essential Guide. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, L. (2015). “The Indian Growth Model: A Chinese Perspective,” in India and China in the Emerging Dynamics of East Asia, eds. G. V. C. Naidu, M. Chen, and R. Narayanan (New Delhi: Springer India), 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016). Two Galapagos Islands House The World’s Largest Shark Biomass. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Tactical Airlift: Issues Concerning Air Force Plans for Pacific Distribution System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janpengpen, A. (2010). Monitoring and forecasting biosolids odors at prior lime and post lime addition in wastewater treatment plants.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. (2016). Trump’s Boasts Shake Women Out of Silence. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watanabe, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Watanabe, 2003; Ochman and Davalos, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ochman and Davalos, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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