How to format your references using the Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pan, X. (2013). Fundamental equations for species-area theory. Sci. Rep. 3, 1334.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ausländer, S., and Fussenegger, M. (2014). Synthetic biology. Dynamic genome engineering in living cells. Science 346, 813–814.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mills, C. E., Robins, J. M., and Lipsitch, M. (2004). Transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza. Nature 432, 904–906.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, W.-J., Tian, K., Jiang, H., and Yu, H.-Q. (2013). Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste. Sci. Rep. 3, 2419.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Iyengar, S. S., Parameshwaran, N., Phoha, V. V., Balakrishnan, N., and Okoye, C. D. (2010). Fundamentals of Sensor Network Programming. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Khosla, R., Howlett, R. J., and Jain, L. C. eds. (2005). Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 9th International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Analide, C., Abelha, A., Machado, J., and Neves, J. (2008). “An Agent Based Approach to the Selection Dilemma in CBR,” in Intelligent Distributed Computing, Systems and Applications: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2008, Catania, Italy, 2008 Studies in Computational Intelligence., eds. C. Badica, G. Mangioni, V. Carchiolo, and D. D. Burdescu (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). Chinese Astronaut Says He Heard A Strange Knocking Sound While In Space. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Y2K Computing Challenge: Day One Planning and Operations Guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai, H. (2008). High Temperature Proton-Exchange and Fuel Processing Membranes for Fuel Cells and Other Applications.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016). Brooklyn Gets a Superhero (and a Few Villains). New York Times, MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pan, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Pan, 2013, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ausländer and Fussenegger, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Spinal Cord Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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