How to format your references using the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fields R D 2014 Neuroscience. Myelin--more than insulation Science 344 264–6
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown G D and Gordon S 2001 Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans Nature 413 36–7
A journal article with 3 authors
Sereno M I, Pitzalis S and Martinez A 2001 Mapping of contralateral space in retinotopic coordinates by a parietal cortical area in humans Science 294 1350–4
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Saeij J P J, Coller S, Boyle J P, Jerome M E, White M W and Boothroyd J C 2007 Toxoplasma co-opts host gene expression by injection of a polymorphic kinase homologue Nature 445 324–7

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller M A 2005 Internet Technologies Handbook (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Nuzzolo A and Wilson N H M 2009 Schedule-Based Modeling of Transportation Networks: Theory and applications vol 46 (Boston, MA: Springer US)
A chapter in an edited book
Scott J, Buytaert N, Cannell K, D’Souza M, Gault D, Gielis D, Hartman R, Kubicek D, Mattamal R, McGhan D, Mignault F, Petrus T, Rimblas J and Ruepprich C 2015 Tabular Forms Expert Oracle Application Express ed N Buytaert, K Cannell, M D’Souza, D Gault, D Gielis, R Hartman, D Kubicek, R Mattamal, D McGhan, F Mignault, T Petrus, J Rimblas and C Ruepprich (Berkeley, CA: Apress) pp 145–214

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Incredible Video Shows Volcanic Eruption in Papua New Guinea IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1995 USDA Telecommunications: Missed Opportunities to Save Millions (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Llamas A L 2017 ALLTAP Solutions, LLC: A Business Plan Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K 2002 Big Trucks Take More Detours, and Residents Near Holland Tunnel Just Smile New York Times 145

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-3727
ISSN (online)1361-6463
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles