How to format your references using the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boehncke W-H 2012 Perspective: Don’t be superficial Nature 492 S55
A journal article with 2 authors
Felfly H and Klein O D 2013 Sprouty genes regulate proliferation and survival of human embryonic stem cells Sci. Rep. 3 2277
A journal article with 3 authors
Berg E, Metlitski M A and Sachdev S 2012 Sign-problem-free quantum Monte Carlo of the onset of antiferromagnetism in metals Science 338 1606–9
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Huelsenbeck J P, Ronquist F, Nielsen R and Bollback J P 2001 Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology Science 294 2310–4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Piegorsch W W and Bailer A J 2005 Analyzing Environmental Data (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Pifat-Mrzljak G 2007 Supramolecular Structure and Function 9 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Fastl H and Zwicker E 2007 Masking Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models ed E Zwicker (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 61–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 What Drove The Evolution Of Male Sharks’ Genitals? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2005 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Improved Stategic and Acquisition Planning Can Help Address Emerging Challenges (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chongkrairatanakul W 2012 Foreign-educated nurses Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear M D and Glanz J 2016 Trump Says U.S. Should ‘Expand’ Nuclear Ability New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-3727
ISSN (online)1361-6463
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles