How to format your references using the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cressey D 2011 Animal research: Battle scars Nature 470 452–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Fazleabas A T and Kim J J 2003 Development. What makes an embryo stick? Science 299 355–6
A journal article with 3 authors
Bacles C F E, Lowe A J and Ennos R A 2006 Effective seed dispersal across a fragmented landscape Science 311 628
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Dolling G, Enkrich C, Wegener M, Soukoulis C M and Linden S 2006 Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial Science 312 892–4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kent J 2017 ADA in Details (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Apikyan S A and Diamond D J 2010 Nuclear Power and Energy Security (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Silva S M da 2013 Disinheriting the Heritage and the Case of Pauliteiras Mediterranean Art and Education: Navigating Local, Regional and Global Imaginaries Through the Lens of the Arts And Learning ed J Baldacchino and R Vella (Rotterdam: SensePublishers) pp 43–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.

Blog post
Fang J 2014 Scientists Regenerate Leg Muscles With Pig Bladder Tissue IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1991 Department of Education: Monitoring of State Formula Grants by Office of Special Education Programs (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivera C 2017 The Role of Privacy, Brand Labeling, and Cost on Condom Procurement: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Assess a University Policy Doctoral dissertation ( Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dobbins J 2017 How to Be an Airbnb Host Without Breaking the Law New York Times RE12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0022-3727
ISSN (online)1361-6463
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles