How to format your references using the Immunological Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunological Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.          Borhani, DW. Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus.” Science 2011; 332: 1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.          Chen, J, Novick, RP. Phage-mediated intergeneric transfer of toxin genes. Science 2009; 323: 139–141.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.          Saikia, A, Frost, DJ, Rubie, DC. Splitting of the 520-kilometer seismic discontinuity and chemical heterogeneity in the mantle. Science 2008; 319: 1515–1518.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.          Arrasate, M, Mitra, S, Schweitzer, ES, Segal, MR, Finkbeiner, S. Inclusion body formation reduces levels of mutant huntingtin and the risk of neuronal death. Nature 2004; 431: 805–810.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schneider, HJ. Wittgenstein’s Later Theory of Meaning. John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Halt, GB, Jr. Intellectual Property in Consumer Electronics, Software and Technology Startups. Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Chauvicourt, F., Orlando, S., Desmet, W., Gyselinck, J.J.C., & Faria, C.T. (2016). Experimental Study on the Impact of the Number of Laminas on the Dynamics Behavior of an Electric Machine Stator. Topics in Modal Analysis & Testing, Volume 10: Proceedings of the 34th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2016, 73–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunological Reviews.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Wolves Cooperate With Each Other, Dogs Form Hierarchies. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). Workforce Development: Community Colleges and One-Stop Centers Collaborate to Meet 21st Century Workforce Needs.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ball-Miles, N.M. (2014). The relationship between witnessing verbal marital conflict as a child and the behavioral anger responses in adulthood.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. (2017). The Flea Makes a Big Move in TriBeCa. New York Times, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunological Reviews
AbbreviationImmunol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0105-2896
ISSN (online)1600-065X
Immunology and Allergy

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