How to format your references using the Safety in Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety in Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Conley DJ. Ecology: save the Baltic Sea. Nature. 2012;486:463–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Retchless AC, Lawrence JG. Temporal fragmentation of speciation in bacteria. Science. 2007;317:1093–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Carporzen L, Gilder SA, Hart RJ. Palaeomagnetism of the Vredefort meteorite crater and implications for craters on Mars. Nature. 2005;435:198–201.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Svensen H, Planke S, Malthe-Sørenssen A, Jamtveit B, Myklebust R, Rasmussen Eidem T, et al. Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming. Nature. 2004;429:542–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Leis JW. Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB for Students and Researchers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Stöhr J. Magnetism: From Fundamentals to Nanoscale Dynamics. Siegmann HC, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Makke KR, Thangakumar J, Suresh Reddy BV, Somaiah Y. Enhancing Data Caching in Ad-hoc Networks Through Benefit-Based Technique. In: Sathiakumar S, Awasthi LK, Masillamani MR, Sridhar SS, editors. Proceedings of International Conference on Internet Computing and Information Communications: ICICIC Global 2012. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014. p. 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety in Health.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Breakthrough Prize Awards World’s Top Scientists At “Oscars” of Science [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Process by Which Mergers of Local Telephone Companies Are Reviewed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Aug. Report No.: RCED-99-223.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Miller DB. Nurse educators’ leadership styles and nurse graduates’ licensure passage rates [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lardner G Jr. No Country for Second Chances. New York Times. 2010 Nov 24;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety in Health
AbbreviationSaf. Health
ISSN (online)2056-5917

Other styles