How to format your references using the Information Fusion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Fusion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Cyranoski, Western Japan: Go west, young postdoc, Nature. 424 (2003) 352–353.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Ordureau, J.W. Harper, Cell biology: balancing act, Nature. 510 (2014) 347–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.J. Wiser, N. Ribeck, R.E. Lenski, Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations, Science. 342 (2013) 1364–1367.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.D. Thomas, E.J. Bodsworth, R.J. Wilson, A.D. Simmons, Z.G. Davies, M. Musche, L. Conradt, Ecological and evolutionary processes at expanding range margins, Nature. 411 (2001) 577–581.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Darbyshire, D. Hampton, Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using Excel and VBA, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2012.
An edited book
P. L’ Ecuyer, A.B. Owen, eds., Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2008, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Chebanov, On the Problem of Similar Motions of a Chain of Coupled Heavy Rigid Bodies, in: J. Bélair, I.A. Frigaard, H. Kunze, R. Makarov, R. Melnik, R.J. Spiteri (Eds.), Mathematical and Computational Approaches in Advancing Modern Science and Engineering, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Fusion.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What Is KPC And Should I Be Worried About These Superbugs?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Materials Research and Development, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.S. Lieberman, “Stroke Your Thoroughbreds and Kick Your Donkeys”: Power and the Secondary Administrative Distribution of Teaching Assignments, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, State Pension Fund Faces Shortfall, Candidate Says, New York Times. (2010) A30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Fusion
AbbreviationInf. Fusion
ISSN (print)1566-2535
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Signal Processing

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