How to format your references using the Information Fusion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Fusion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Reichhardt, NASA ponders termination of gamma-ray observatory, Nature. 403 (2000) 232.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.E. Wimmer, D. Shohamy, Preference by association: how memory mechanisms in the hippocampus bias decisions, Science. 338 (2012) 270–273.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.Y. Angell, I. Danel, K.M. DeCock, Global health. Global indicators and targets for noncommunicable diseases, Science. 337 (2012) 1456–1457.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Pushp, C.V. Parker, A.N. Pasupathy, K.K. Gomes, S. Ono, J. Wen, Z. Xu, G. Gu, A. Yazdani, Extending universal nodal excitations optimizes superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta, Science. 324 (2009) 1689–1693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Avlonas, G.P. Nassos, Practical Sustainability Strategies, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
P. Ceroni, ed., The Exploration of Supramolecular Systems and Nanostructures by Photochemical Techniques, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Laouafi, M. Mordjaoui, D. Dib, One-Hour Ahead Electric Load Forecasting Using Neuro-fuzzy System in a Parallel Approach, in: A.T. Azar, S. Vaidyanathan (Eds.), Computational Intelligence Applications in Modeling and Control, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 95–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Fusion.

Blog post
T. Hale, Please Don’t Put Bison In Your Car, Even If It Looks Cold, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, International Aviation: New Competitive Conditions Require Changes in DOT Strategy, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.W. Woodworth, Secure Semantic Search over Encrypted Big Data in the Cloud, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Sokolove, Following the Money, New York Times. (2017) AR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Fusion
AbbreviationInf. Fusion
ISSN (print)1566-2535
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Signal Processing

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