How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Romm, J., 2011: Desertification: The next dust bowl. Nature, 478, 450–451.
A journal article with 2 authors
Glimcher, P. W., and A. Rustichini, 2004: Neuroeconomics: the consilience of brain and decision. Science, 306, 447–452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Callou, C., A. Samzun, and A. Zivie, 2004: Archaeology: a lion found in the Egyptian tomb of Maïa. Nature, 427, 211–212.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Nagaoka, T., A. Inutsuka, K. Begum, K. M. Bin hafiz, and M. Kishi, 2014: Vangl2 regulates E-cadherin in epithelial cells. Sci. Rep., 4, 6940.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bajorski, P., 2011: Statistics for Imaging, Optics, and Photonics: Bajorski/Statistics for Imaging. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
An edited book
Syka, J., and M. M. Merzenich, eds., 2005: Plasticity and Signal Representation in the Auditory System. Springer US, X, 418 p. 132 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Kegl, B., M. Kegl, and S. Pehan, 2013: Biodiesel as Diesel Engine Fuel. Green Diesel Engines: Biodiesel Usage in Diesel Engines, M. Kegl and S. Pehan, Eds., Lecture Notes in Energy, Springer, 95–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015: Now Advertising Billboards Can Read Your Emotions … And That’s Just The Start. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015: Telecommunications: FCC Should Evaluate the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Lifeline Program. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crowell, M. L., 2016: A Case Study into the Perception of World Language Study of All Stakeholders in a Suburban Midwest School District. Lindenwood University, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2013: Keeping Up With His Followers. New York Times, October 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Romm 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Romm 2011; Glimcher and Rustichini 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Glimcher and Rustichini 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagaoka et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

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