How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dennell, R., 2011: Archaeology. An earlier Acheulian arrival in South Asia. Science, 331, 1532–1533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lollar, B. S., and T. M. McCollom, 2006: Geochemistry: biosignatures and abiotic constraints on early life. Nature, 444, E18; discussion E18-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ho Choi, S., B. Kim, and C. D. Frisbie, 2008: Electrical resistance of long conjugated molecular wires. Science, 320, 1482–1486.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Dale, G. L., P. Friese, P. Batar, S. F. Hamilton, G. L. Reed, K. W. Jackson, K. J. Clemetson, and L. Alberio, 2002: Stimulated platelets use serotonin to enhance their retention of procoagulant proteins on the cell surface. Nature, 415, 175–179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthou, P., C. Baudoin, T. Gayraud, and M. Gineste, 2015: Satellite and Terrestrial Hybrid Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
An edited book
Salzborn, S., E. Davidov, and J. Reinecke, eds., 2012: Methods, Theories, and Empirical Applications in the Social Sciences. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 351p. 21 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Haslinger, E. N., R. E. Lopez-Herrejon, and A. Egyed, 2013: On Extracting Feature Models from Sets of Valid Feature Combinations. Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering: 16th International Conference, FASE 2013, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2013, Rome, Italy, March 16-24, 2013. Proceedings, V. Cortellessa and D. Varró, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015: Study Reveals Why We All Love People That Are Bad For Us. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1972: Opportunities for Improving Federally Assisted Manpower Programs Identified as a Result of Review in the Atlanta, Georgia, Area. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nasiriamini, S., 2010: The need for adaptive network application architectures. California State University, Long Beach, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Traub, J., 2016: Make Poland Great Again. New York Times, November 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dennell 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dennell 2011; Lollar and McCollom 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lollar and McCollom 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Dale et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

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