How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szostak, J. W., 2003: Functional information: Molecular messages. Nature, 423, 689.
A journal article with 2 authors
Janak, P. H., and K. M. Tye, 2015: From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala. Nature, 517, 284–292.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Y., D. W. Forsyth, and B. Savage, 2009: Convective upwelling in the mantle beneath the Gulf of California. Nature, 462, 499–501.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Zheng, H., Y. Liu, F. Cao, S. Wu, S. Jia, A. Cao, D. Zhao, and J. Wang, 2013: Electron beam-assisted healing of nanopores in magnesium alloys. Sci. Rep., 3, 1920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ananthakrishnan, A. N., R. J. Xavier, and D. K. Podolsky, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Brlek, S., and C. Reutenauer, eds., 2016: Developments in Language Theory: 20th International Conference, DLT 2016, Montréal, Canada, July 25-28, 2016, Proceedings. Springer, XVII, 407 p. 48 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdullah, M. H., A. Saboor, I. A. Baig, and M. Arshad, 2016: Climate Change, Risk and Food Security: An Analysis of Wheat Crop in Pakistan. Climate Change Challenge (3C) and Social-Economic-Ecological Interface-Building: Exploring Potential Adaptation Strategies for Bio-resource Conservation and Livelihood Development, S. Nautiyal, R. Schaldach, K.V. Raju, H. Kaechele, B. Pritchard, and K.S. Rao, Eds., Environmental Science and Engineering, Springer International Publishing, 41–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014: Orphan Pygmy Marmoset Loves Being Brushed By A Toothbrush. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991: Social Security: Telephone Access to Local Field Offices. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glock, M., 2008: Cultural futuristics: Bringing consciousness to cultural complexes and soul to scenario based planning. Pacifica Graduate Institute, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Lanchester, J., 2016: What the West Can Learn From Japan About the Cultural Value of Work. New York Times, December 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Szostak 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Szostak 2003; Janak and Tye 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Janak and Tye 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zheng et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

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