How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen, D., 2005: Nuts and bolts. International ventures. Nature, 434, 804.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ley, T. J., and B. H. Hamilton, 2008: Sociology. The gender gap in NIH grant applications. Science, 322, 1472–1474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Regan, C. K., S. L. Craig, and J. I. Brauman, 2002: Steric effects and solvent effects in ionic reactions. Science, 295, 2245–2247.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Gaudier, M., B. S. Schuwirth, S. L. Westcott, and D. B. Wigley, 2007: Structural basis of DNA replication origin recognition by an ORC protein. Science, 317, 1213–1216.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beaumont, W. R. C., 2016: Electricity in fish research and management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Simões, A., M. P. Diogo, and K. Gavroglu, eds., 2015: Sciences in the Universities of Europe, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Academic Landscapes. Springer Netherlands, X, 393 p. 18 illus., 10 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Federmann, C., 2012: A Machine-Learning Framework for Hybrid Machine Translation. KI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 35th Annual German Conference on AI, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 24-27, 2012. Proceedings, B. Glimm and A. Krüger, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014: Here’s Why McDonald’s Burgers Don’t Rot. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988: Civil Agency Aircraft: Agencies’ Use of Certain Aircraft to Transport Passengers. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fresolone, C., 2012: The pedagogical use of Gerald Near’s “Chantworks.” University of Arizona, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M., 2017: Kushner Friend Steps Down as Editor of the Observer. New York Times, May 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Koen 2005; Ley and Hamilton 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ley and Hamilton 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Gaudier et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

Other styles