How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mishra, J., 2014: Having it all. Science, 345, 1090.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thiele, A., and G. Stoner, 2003: Neuronal synchrony does not correlate with motion coherence in cortical area MT. Nature, 421, 366–370.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Y., W. Yun, and C. Jacobsen, 2003: Achromatic Fresnel optics for wideband extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray imaging. Nature, 424, 50–53.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Bellwood, D. R., T. P. Hughes, C. Folke, and M. Nyström, 2004: Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature, 429, 827–833.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sellars, C., 2011: Risk Assessment in People with Learning Disabilities. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK,.
An edited book
Rau, S., and E. Schönherr, eds., 2014: Mapping Spatial Relations, Their Perceptions and Dynamics: The City Today and in the Past. Springer International Publishing, Cham, XII, 214 p. 65 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Parra-Arnau, J., D. Rebollo-Monedero, and J. Forné, 2012: A Privacy-Protecting Architecture for Collaborative Filtering via Forgery and Suppression of Ratings. Data Privacy Management and Autonomous Spontaneus Security: 6th International Workshop, DPM 2011, and 4th International Workshop, SETOP 2011, Leuven, Belgium, September 15-16, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, J. Garcia-Alfaro, G. Navarro-Arribas, N. Cuppens-Boulahia, and S. De Capitani di Vimercati, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 42–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016: Enormous Helium Discovery Could End Shortage. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991: Information Resources: HCFA Must Better Justify Further Data Center Expansion. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collette, J. C., 2017: Validation of the tgFgfr1-EGFP Mouse Line as a Tool to Study Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Cellular Localization and Expression After Experimental Manipulations. University of Louisiana, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kercher, S., 2015: Lowriding Culture Goes Global. New York Times, December 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mishra 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Mishra 2014; Thiele and Stoner 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thiele and Stoner 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Bellwood et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

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