How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quirrenbach, A., 2007: Astronomy. Seeing the surfaces of stars. Science, 317, 325–326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tabak, L. A., and F. S. Collins, 2011: Sociology. Weaving a richer tapestry in biomedical science. Science, 333, 940–941.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsässer, S. J., C. D. Allis, and P. W. Lewis, 2011: Cancer. New epigenetic drivers of cancers. Science, 331, 1145–1146.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Blanchon, P., and Coauthors, 2014: Postglacial fringing-reef to barrier-reef conversion on Tahiti links Darwin’s reef types. Sci. Rep., 4, 4997.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
CCPS, 2006: Safe Design and Operation of Process Vents and Emission Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
An edited book
Cheng, I.-H., and S.-J. Chan, eds., 2015: International Education Aid in Developing Asia: Policies and Practices. Springer, X, 254 p. 13 illus., 12 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Faridi, S., 2014: A Good Leaf Order on Simplicial Trees. Connections Between Algebra, Combinatorics, and Geometry, S.M. Cooper and S. Sather-Wagstaff, Eds., Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics, Springer, 191–207.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014: Inside The Colorful World Of Animal Vision. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989: Technology Transfer: Implementation Status of the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Day, K. C., 2017: CPA Perceptions of Human Skills for Professional Competency Development Needs. Northcentral University, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2005: Justices Reject F.B.I. Translator’s Appeal on Termination. New York Times, November 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quirrenbach 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Quirrenbach 2007; Tabak and Collins 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tabak and Collins 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Blanchon et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

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