How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hendrix, M. J. C., 2015: Cancer: An extravascular route for tumour cells. Nature, 520, 300–302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, A., and V. Kanamarlapudi, 2014: The regions within the N-terminus critical for human glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (hGLP-1R) cell surface expression. Sci. Rep., 4, 7410.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choi, W.-Y., A. J. Giraldez, and A. F. Schier, 2007: Target protectors reveal dampening and balancing of Nodal agonist and antagonist by miR-430. Science, 318, 271–274.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Ricci-Vitiani, L., and Coauthors, 2010: Tumour vascularization via endothelial differentiation of glioblastoma stem-like cells. Nature, 468, 824–828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paret, D., and J.-P. Huon, 2017: Secure Connected Objects. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
An edited book
Leonida, M. D., 2016: Bionanomaterials for Skin Regeneration. I. Kumar, Ed. Springer International Publishing, XVIII, 144 p. 22 illus., 12 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, C., L. Xu, F. Ye, and J. Chen, 2016: An Adaptive Error Concealment Algorithm Based on Partition Model. Advances in Image and Graphics Technologies: 11th Chinese Conference, IGTA 2016, Beijing, China, July 8-9, 2016, Proceedings, T. Tan, G. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Yuan, R. He, and S. Li, Eds., Communications in Computer and Information Science, Springer, 35–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016: Ranked: The 42 Laziest Dog Breeds In America. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976: NSA Methods of Acquiring Automatic Data Processing Equipment. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnston, J. S., 2017: Echo in Three Acts: The Lost Historical Subject in (Dis)articulation. George Washington University, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2016: Williams Expected to Get His Own Show on MSNBC. New York Times, August 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hendrix 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hendrix 2015; Thompson and Kanamarlapudi 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson and Kanamarlapudi 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ricci-Vitiani et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

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