How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2002: Bridging sectors. Medicon Valley. Nature, 420, A24-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bourc’his, D., and O. Voinnet, 2010: A small-RNA perspective on gametogenesis, fertilization, and early zygotic development. Science, 330, 617–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Borsa, A. A., D. C. Agnew, and D. R. Cayan, 2014: Remote Hydrology. Ongoing drought-induced uplift in the western United States. Science, 345, 1587–1590.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Perry, C. T., and Coauthors, 2018: Loss of coral reef growth capacity to track future increases in sea level. Nature, 558, 396–400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wills, B., 2016: Purposely Profitable. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Srihari, S. N., and K. Franke, eds., 2008: Computational Forensics: Second International Workshop, IWCF 2008, Washington, DC, USA, August 7-8, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, IX, 229 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Taha, S., and X. Shen, 2013: Conclusions and Future Directions. Secure IP Mobility Management for VANET, X. Shen, Ed., SpringerBriefs in Computer Science, Springer International Publishing, 103–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016: This Is What An Ancient Egyptian Woman Looked LIke. IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987: ADP, IRM & Telecommunications 1986. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luo, P., 2010: Evaluation of the flicker effect as a generative strategy in enhancing computer -based instruction (CBI) of visual recognition and classification. University of South Florida, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2013: Maybe Animals Just Need Quality Time With Friends. New York Times, July 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Bourc’his and Voinnet 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bourc’his and Voinnet 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Perry et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

Other styles