How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferry, G., 2013: Scientific heritage: Science today, history tomorrow. Nature, 493, 19–21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Satheesh, S. K., and V. Ramanathan V., 2000: Large differences in tropical aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere and Earth’s surface. Nature, 405, 60–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Almeda, R., T. L. Connelly, and E. J. Buskey, 2014: Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea. Sci. Rep., 4, 7560.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Lee, A.-H., E. F. Scapa, D. E. Cohen, and L. H. Glimcher, 2008: Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by the transcription factor XBP1. Science, 320, 1492–1496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, S. K., and M. M. Handelsman, 2009: Ethics for Psychotherapists and Counselors. Wiley-Blackwell,.
An edited book
Goldade, V. A., 2005: Plastics for Corrosion Inhibition. L.S. Pinchuk, A.V. Makarevich, and V.N. Kestelman, Eds. Springer, XVI, 384 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Härdle, W. K., and L. Simar, 2015: Theory of the Multinormal. Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis, L. Simar, Ed., Springer, 183–199.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015: Does Your Beard Really Contain More Poo Than A Toilet? IFLScience,. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999: Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly, L. A., 2009: Nursing surveillance in the acute care setting: Latent variable development and analysis. University of Arizona, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992: UNDER THE DOME: On Stage; A 32-Year Congressman Joins The Attack on His Colleagues. New York Times, August 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ferry 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ferry 2013; Satheesh and Ramanathan 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Satheesh and Ramanathan 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

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