How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harmon, L., 2010: Journal club. An evolutionary biologist ponders the pace of evolution. Nature, 463, 1003.
A journal article with 2 authors
West, S. A., and B. C. Sheldon, 2002: Constraints in the evolution of sex ratio adjustment. Science, 295, 1685–1688.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schieber, J., J. Southard, and K. Thaisen, 2007: Accretion of mudstone beds from migrating floccule ripples. Science, 318, 1760–1763.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Jansen, V. A. A., N. Stollenwerk, H. J. Jensen, M. E. Ramsay, W. J. Edmunds, and C. J. Rhodes, 2003: Measles outbreaks in a population with declining vaccine uptake. Science, 301, 804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feyel, P., 2013: Loop-shaping Robust Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA,.
An edited book
Kühn, O., and L. Wöste, eds., 2007: Analysis and Control of Ultrafast Photoinduced Reactions. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XVIII, 842 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Leemis, L. M., 2010: Variate Generation in Reliability. Simulation Methods for Reliability and Availability of Complex Systems, J. Faulin, A.A. Juan, S. Martorell, and J.-E. Ramírez-Márquez, Eds., Springer Series in Reliability Engineering, Springer, London, 85–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017: Two Fossil Skulls Discovered In China May Have Belonged To Mysterious Denisovans. IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014: Special Education: Improved Performance Measures Could Enhance Oversight of Dispute Resolution. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC,.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, P. A., 2012: Love and hate: The study of school principals moving from job motivation to job frustration. Capella University, .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2006: No-Frills Cuban Fare, and Cheer. New York Times, December 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harmon 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Harmon 2010, [CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (West and Sheldon 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Jansen et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Oceanography
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0022-3670
ISSN (online)1520-0485

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