How to format your references using the Journal of Communications and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Communications and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Robinson, “Ancient civilization: Cracking the Indus script,” Nature, vol. 526, no. 7574, pp. 499–501, Oct. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Destexhe and E. Marder, “Plasticity in single neuron and circuit computations,” Nature, vol. 431, no. 7010, pp. 789–795, Oct. 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Schummers, H. Yu, and M. Sur, “Tuned responses of astrocytes and their influence on hemodynamic signals in the visual cortex,” Science, vol. 320, no. 5883, pp. 1638–1643, Jun. 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. C. Welch, R. R. San Juan, J. D. Masuda, and D. W. Stephan, “Reversible, metal-free hydrogen activation,” Science, vol. 314, no. 5802, pp. 1124–1126, Nov. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Sóbester and A. I. J. Forrester, Aircraft Aerodynamic Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
N. Ellerton, Rewriting the History of School Mathematics in North America 1607-1861: The Central Role of Cyphering Books. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
G. F. Bignami and A. Sommariva, “Interstellar Exploration Technologies,” in A Scenario for Interstellar Exploration and Its Financing, A. Sommariva, Ed. Milano: Springer, 2013, pp. 41–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Communications and Networks.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, “Everything You Need To Know About Elon Musk’s Plan To Colonize Mars,” IFLScience, Sep. 28, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Managing Competing Pressures Is Critical to Achieving Program Goals,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-03-1012T, Jul. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. D. Heffner, “Informing Decision-Making for Derailments Involving Hazmat: An Analysis of Phmsa Train Accident Data,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Wilson, “In Chelsea Bombing Trial, a Lesson on How a Cellphone Becomes a Trigger,” New York Times, p. A20, Oct. 10, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Communications and Networks
AbbreviationJ. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1229-2370
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems

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