How to format your references using the Journal of Communications and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Communications and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Wadman, “Treatment: When less is more,” Nature, vol. 528, no. 7582, pp. S126-7, Dec. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Green and B. Ewing, “Comment on ‘Evidence of abundant purifying selection in humans for recently acquired regulatory functions,’” Science, vol. 340, no. 6133, p. 682, May 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. Cai, A. P. Vasudev, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6050, pp. 1720–1723, Sep. 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. G. Shpyrko et al., “Surface crystallization in a liquid AuSi alloy,” Science, vol. 313, no. 5783, pp. 77–80, Jul. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Kassapoglou, Modeling the Effect of Damage in Composite Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
M. Barboiu, Ed., Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry, vol. 322. in Topics in Current Chemistry, vol. 322. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Zhan, S. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Formal Modelling, Analysis and Verification of Hybrid Systems,” in Unifying Theories of Programming and Formal Engineering Methods: International Training School on Software Engineering, Held at ICTAC 2013, Shanghai, China, August 26-30, 2013, Advanced Lectures, Z. Liu, J. Woodcock, and H. Zhu, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 207–281.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Communications and Networks.

Blog post
K. Evans, “Could Eating Red Hot Chili Peppers Help You live Longer?,” IFLScience, Jan. 16, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Rail Security: TSA Improved Risk Assessment but Could Further Improve Training and Information Sharing,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-11-688T, Jun. 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. S. Catt, “The reduction of surgical errors through a development of safety culture, teamwork, and communication,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “The Star Who Stood Out By Not Standing Out,” New York Times, p. D1, Jan. 21, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Communications and Networks
AbbreviationJ. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1229-2370
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems

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