How to format your references using the Journal of Communications and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Communications and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, “How to succeed in business,” Nature, vol. 428, no. 6983, p. 675, Apr. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. H. Haug and L. C. Peterson, “Obituary: Nicholas Shackleton (1937-2006),” Nature, vol. 439, no. 7079, p. 928, Feb. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Q.-P. Su, C.-P. Yang, and S.-B. Zheng, “Fast and simple scheme for generating NOON states of photons in circuit QED,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3898, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. S. Cataliotti et al., “Josephson junction arrays with Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5531, pp. 843–846, Aug. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Bajpai, Environmentally Friendly Production of Pulp and Paper. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
N. Mastorakis, A. Bulucea, and G. Tsekouras, Eds., Computational Problems in Science and Engineering, 1st ed. 2015., vol. 343. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Somalingam, M. Hain, T. Tschudi, J. Knittel, and H. Richter, “Aberration Compensation Using Nematic Liquid Crystals,” in Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop Münster, Germany, Oct. 19–24, 2003, U. Wittrock, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, pp. 35–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Communications and Networks.

Blog post
J. Fang, “New Species Of Snail Named For Marriage Equality,” IFLScience, Oct. 14, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Highways: Acquiring Land for Federal-Aid Projects,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-88-112, Mar. 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. M. Holloway, “Evaluating five leadership traits in the rising stars succession planning program,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, “Still Hunting Jack,” New York Times, p. BR4, Oct. 28, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Communications and Networks
AbbreviationJ. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1229-2370
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems

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