How to format your references using the Journal of Communications and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Communications and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O. Etzioni, “Search needs a shake-up,” Nature, vol. 476, no. 7358, pp. 25–26, Aug. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. J. L. Rowley and R. A. Alford, “Hot bodies protect amphibians against chytrid infection in nature,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1515, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. J. Nuttall, R. H. Clarke, and B. A. Glowacki, “Resources: Stop squandering helium,” Nature, vol. 485, no. 7400, pp. 573–575, May 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Gao et al., “Chemical genetics strategy identifies an HCV NS5A inhibitor with a potent clinical effect,” Nature, vol. 465, no. 7294, pp. 96–100, May 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Li, Fundamentals of Complex Networks. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
K. K. Hunt, G. L. Robb, E. A. Strom, and N. T. Ueno, Eds., Breast Cancer 2nd edition. New York, NY: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Z. Kuś and A. Nawrat, “Object Tracking in a Picture during Rapid Camera Movements,” in Vision Based Systemsfor UAV Applications, A. Nawrat and Z. Kuś, Eds. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing, 2013, pp. 77–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Communications and Networks.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Distant Species Produce Hybrid 60 Million Years After Their Split,” IFLScience, Feb. 14, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “The Job Training Partnership Act Performance Standards and Information Systems,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 129345, Mar. 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. T. Biller, “Cyber-Terrorism: Finding a Common Starting Point,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. D. Shear and S. Erlanger, “Trump Condemns ‘Deeply Troubling’ Leaks on Attack After Complaints in Britain,” New York Times, p. A12, May 25, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Communications and Networks
AbbreviationJ. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1229-2370
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems

Other styles