How to format your references using the Journal of Communications and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Communications and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Wigzell, “Science & Politics: when ministers are well primed,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7163, p. 663, Oct. 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Liu and L. K. Ang, “Motion-induced radiation from electrons moving in Maxwell’s fish-eye,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 3065, Oct. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Poinar, M. Kuch, and S. Pääbo, “Molecular analyses of oral polio vaccine samples,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5517, pp. 743–744, Apr. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.-X. Yin et al., “Giant and anisotropic many-body spin-orbit tunability in a strongly correlated kagome magnet,” Nature, vol. 562, no. 7725, pp. 91–95, Oct. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. T. Coe, Unlikely Victory: How General Electric Succeeded in the Chemical Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000.
An edited book
B. Fine, Number Theory: An Introduction via the Distribution of Primes. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Paris, C. Perrard, and P. Lutz, “A Generic Approach for a Micro Parts Feeding System,” in Precision Assembly Technologies for Mini and Micro Products: Proceedings of the IFIP TC5 WG5.5 Third International Precision Assembly Seminar (IPAS ’2006), 19–21 February 2006, Bad Hofgastein, Austria, S. Ratchev, Ed. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2006, pp. 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Communications and Networks.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Adult Ants Take Out Hits On Young Males, Causing Death Squads To Rip Them To Shreds,” IFLScience, 18-Jul-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Motor Vehicle Safety: NHTSA Should Resume Its Support of State Periodic Inspection Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-90-175, Jul. 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. A. Martinez, “Intervention workshops for members of multidisciplinary teams on hoarding: A grant proposal,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh and C. Robertson, “Just Before Deadline, County in Alabama Delays Bankruptcy Move,” New York Times, p. B1, 29-Jul-2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Communications and Networks
AbbreviationJ. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1229-2370
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems

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