How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. M. Berg, “Science policy: Well-funded investigators should receive extra scrutiny,” Nature, vol. 489, no. 7415, p. 203, Sep. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Hughes and J. Nordholt, “Physics. Refining quantum cryptography,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6049, pp. 1584–1586, Sep. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Barry, G. C. Craig, and J. Thuburn, “Poleward heat transport by the atmospheric heat engine,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 6873, pp. 774–777, Feb. 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Gratten et al., “A localized negative genetic correlation constrains microevolution of coat color in wild sheep,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5861, pp. 318–320, Jan. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.-J. Eales, Immunology for Life Scientists. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
B. León, From Robot to Human Grasping Simulation, vol. 19. in Cognitive Systems Monographs, vol. 19. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
K. R. Libal and S. Harding, “Community Practice, Fostering Participation, and Human Rights,” in Human Rights-Based Community Practice in the United States, S. Harding, Ed., in SpringerBriefs in Rights-Based Approaches to Social Work. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 79–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Digital Metamaterials Get Us Closer to Invisibility Cloaks,” IFLScience, Sep. 15, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Protest of Army Contract Award for Satellite Station,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-177637, Jul. 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. C. Boyer, “Best Practices for Student Success on the ACT,” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. J. O. Murphy, “Predicting the Staying Power of ‘The Jungle Book,’” New York Times, p. C26, Apr. 08, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph.
ISSN (print)1077-2626
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

Other styles