How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. A. Nowak, “Five rules for the evolution of cooperation,” Science, vol. 314, no. 5805, pp. 1560–1563, Dec. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Sattler and G. Parkin, “Cleaving carbon-carbon bonds by inserting tungsten into unstrained aromatic rings,” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7280, pp. 523–526, Jan. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. J. Murray, D. A. Knopf, and A. K. Bertram, “The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth’s atmosphere,” Nature, vol. 434, no. 7030, pp. 202–205, Mar. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Helmlinger, M. Endo, N. Ferrara, L. Hlatky, and R. K. Jain, “Formation of endothelial cell networks,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6783, pp. 139–141, May 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. J. Bonk, The World is Open. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass, 2011.
An edited book
A. Schwarz and J. Janicka, Eds., Combustion Noise. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Hening, “Policy and Advocacy: Role of Civil Society in Disaster Management Bill Processes in Indonesia,” in Civil Society Organization and Disaster Risk Reduction: The Asian Dilemma, R. Shaw and T. Izumi, Eds., in Disaster Risk Reduction. , Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2014, pp. 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “The Internet Is Eating Your Memory, But Something Better Is Taking Its Place,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Contracting Strategies: Better Data and Management Needed to Leverage Value of Interagency and Enterprisewide Contracts,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-10-862T, Jun. 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. R. Vallaster, “Recognizing and Supporting the Forgotten Poverty Frontier: Exploring Suburban School Poverty in Elementary Schools,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Wilson, “Before Prison, Producer Recalls Fateful Night,” New York Times, p. A20, Aug. 15, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph.
ISSN (print)1077-2626
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

Other styles