How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, M. (2013). Heart health. Nature, 493(7434), S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marone, F., & Romanowicz, B. (2007). The depth distribution of azimuthal anisotropy in the continental upper mantle. Nature, 447(7141), 198–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gneezy, U., Keenan, E. A., & Gneezy, A. (2014). Behavioral economics. Avoiding overhead aversion in charity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6209), 632–635.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wheeler, T. M., Sobczak, K., Lueck, J. D., Osborne, R. J., Lin, X., Dirksen, R. T., & Thornton, C. A. (2009). Reversal of RNA dominance by displacement of protein sequestered on triplet repeat RNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5938), 336–339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bock, R. (2005). Handbuch der analytisch-chemischen Aufschlussmethoden. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Natarajan, V., & Parinandi, N. L. (Eds.). (2014). Mitochondrial Function in Lung Health and Disease (Vol. 15). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schaeffter, T., & Dahnke, H. (2008). Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy. In W. Semmler & M. Schwaiger (Eds.), Molecular Imaging I (pp. 75–90). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 28). Skeleton Of Ancient Warrior Found In 3,500-Year-Old Greek Tomb. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Automated Systems Security--Federal Agencies Should Strengthen Safeguards Over Personal and Other Sensitive Data (LCD-78-123). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frey, E. F. (2008). Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Glasser, S. B. (2017, February 18). Our Putin. New York Times, SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Marone & Romanowicz, 2007; May, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marone & Romanowicz, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Gneezy et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wheeler et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthopsychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-9432
ISSN (online)1939-0025
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Psychology (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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