How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohi, S. P. (2012). Agriculture. Carbon storage with benefits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6110), 1034–1035.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sloan, P. A., & Palmer, R. E. (2005). Two-electron dissociation of single molecules by atomic manipulation at room temperature. Nature, 434(7031), 367–371.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eagleman, D. M., Jacobson, J. E., & Sejnowski, T. J. (2004). Perceived luminance depends on temporal context. Nature, 428(6985), 854–856.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Siveter, D. J., Sutton, M. D., Briggs, D. E. G., & Siveter, D. J. (2004). A Silurian sea spider. Nature, 431(7011), 978–980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kim, D. M. (2015). Introductory Quantum Mechanics for Applied Nanotechnology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
El-Meliegy, E. (2012). Glasses and Glass Ceramics for Medical Applications. (R. van Noort, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Leal, D. L. (2014). Immigration Policy Versus Immigration Politics: Latinos and the Reform Debate. In T. Payan & E. de la Garza (Eds.), Undecided Nation: Political Gridlock and the Immigration Crisis (pp. 79–95). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, November 11). Engineers Have Invented A “Tricorder” That Could Detect Cancer. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). FCC: Installment Payment Financing for Personal Communications Services Licensees (No. OGC-98-43). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gros, T. R. (2009). A templated agarose scaffold for axon guidance in the central and peripheral nervous system (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016, November 9). Theater; Jazzy Structure, Defying Genre. New York Times, p. AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sohi, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Sloan & Palmer, 2005; Sohi, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sloan & Palmer, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Eagleman, Jacobson, & Sejnowski, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Siveter, Sutton, Briggs, & Siveter, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthopsychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-9432
ISSN (online)1939-0025
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Psychology (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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