How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grogan, D. (2015). The microbes within. Nature, 518(7540), S2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rodríguez-Trelles, F., & Rodríguez, M. A. (2007). Comment on “Global genetic change tracks global climate warming in Drosophila subobscura.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5818), 1497; author reply 1497.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Riordan, M., Moors, M. A., & Portnoy, D. A. (2003). Listeria intracellular growth and virulence require host-derived lipoic acid. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5644), 462–464.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, W., Black, S. S., Edwards, M. D., Miller, S., Morrison, E. L., Bartlett, W., … Booth, I. R. (2008). The structure of an open form of an E. coli mechanosensitive channel at 3.45 A resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5893), 1179–1183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stolarski, T. A., & Tobe, S. (2000). Rolling Contacts. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rauscher, R. C. (2015). Sustainable Neighbourhoods in Australia: City of Sydney Urban Planning. (S. Momtaz, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fortunati, L., Manganelli, A. M., Law, P.-L., & Yang, S. (2012). Beijing Calling… Mobile Communication in Contemporary China. In P.-L. Law (Ed.), New Connectivities in China: Virtual, Actual and Local Interactions (pp. 39–51). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 28). Spectacular Eruption At Japanese Volcano Creates Sky High Plume Bathed In Lightning. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). CEC Sale of Federal Spectrum (No. NSIAD-97-40R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freeman, M. J. (2012). Gene-environment interaction in early onset bipolar disorder (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2009, December 20). Even the Reliable Must Face the Inevitable. New York Times, p. SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hillery, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2009; Damasio, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rodríguez-Trelles & Rodríguez, 2007)
  • Three authors: (O’Riordan, Moors, & Portnoy, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthopsychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-9432
ISSN (online)1939-0025
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Psychology (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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