How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McEwen, B. S. (2013). Neuroscience. Hormones and the social brain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6117), 279–280.
A journal article with 2 authors
Skourtis, S. S., & Beratan, D. N. (2007). Biochemistry. Photosynthesis from the protein’s perspective. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5825), 703–704.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lower, S. K., Hochella, M. F., Jr, & Beveridge, T. J. (2001). Bacterial recognition of mineral surfaces: nanoscale interactions between Shewanella and alpha-FeOOH. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5520), 1360–1363.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Harrison, T. M., Blichert-Toft, J., Müller, W., Albarede, F., Holden, P., & Mojzsis, S. J. (2005). Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 ga. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5756), 1947–1950.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath, A. E. (2011). Luther’s Theology of the Cross. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Hökfelt, T. (Ed.). (2010). Galanin (Vol. 102). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sinha, R., Roop, P., & Basu, S. (2014). SoC Design Methodology. In P. Roop & S. Basu (Eds.), Correct-by-Construction Approaches for SoC Design (pp. 73–85). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 1). Levitating Cells Could Help Scientists Figure Out How Drugs Work. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Financial Difficulties and Funding at D-Q University (HRD-77-146). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pikiewicz, K. A. (2012). I never knew I had expectations until I realized they weren’t going to come true: A grounded theory study of mothering a chronically ill child [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2006, April 23). QUICK BITE/Edison; Sandwich for Five? New York Times, 14NJ24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McEwen, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (McEwen, 2013; Skourtis & Beratan, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Skourtis & Beratan, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Lower et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Harrison et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthopsychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-9432
ISSN (online)1939-0025
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Psychology (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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