How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Bricks and mortar. Scandinavia’s material gains. Nature, 429(6994), 906.
A journal article with 2 authors
Umeda, H., & Nomoto, K. (2003). First-generation black-hole-forming supernovae and the metal abundance pattern of a very iron-poor star. Nature, 422(6934), 871–873.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hori, S., Nomura, T., & Sakaguchi, S. (2003). Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5609), 1057–1061.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gori, S., Agrillo, C., Dadda, M., & Bisazza, A. (2014). Do fish perceive illusory motion? Scientific Reports, 4, 6443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, E. L., & Medikonda, M. (2012). Understanding the Nanotechnology Revolution. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
D’Ambra, P., Guarracino, M., & Talia, D. (Eds.). (2010). Euro-Par 2010 - Parallel Processing: 16th International Euro-Par Conference, Ischia, Italy, August 31 - September 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 6272). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Graves, N., Jarvis, W., & Halton, K. (2009). Changes Arising from the Adoption of Infection Control Programs. In K. Halton & W. Jarvis (Eds.), Economics and Preventing Healthcare Acquired Infection (pp. 67–75). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, October 20). Giant Dinosaurs’ Arrival In Australia Suggests A Period Of Antarctic Warming. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Management Issues at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (T-NSIAD-91-48). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, L. T. (2009). Identifying potential co-repressors associated with dexamethasone-induced repression of the MUC5AC gene [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, February 17). Another Dutch Sweep Leaves Americans Baffled. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2004; Umeda & Nomoto, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Umeda & Nomoto, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Hori et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gori et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthopsychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-9432
ISSN (online)1939-0025
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Psychology (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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