How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watson, A. (2000). EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY: New Science Chief Must Juggle Missions and Politics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5495), 1287a–1288a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poggio, T., & Bizzi, E. (2004). Generalization in vision and motor control. Nature, 431(7010), 768–774.
A journal article with 3 authors
Usami, Y., Wu, Y., & Göttlinger, H. G. (2015). SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef. Nature, 526(7572), 218–223.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Turner, G., Harrison, T. M., Holland, G., Mojzsis, S. J., & Gilmour, J. (2004). Extinct 244Pu in ancient zircons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5693), 89–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Otto, M. (2016). Chemometrics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Badouel, E. (2015). Petri Net Synthesis (L. Bernardinello & P. Darondeau, Eds.; 1st ed. 2015). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dubois, V., Helsen, C., Clinckemalie, L., Spans, L., Laurent, M., Antonio, L., Van den Broeck, T., Prekovic, S., Joniau, S., Vanderschueren, D., & Claessens, F. (2015). What Determines the Difference in DNA Binding Between the Androgen and the Glucocorticoid Receptors? In I. J. McEwan & R. Kumar (Eds.), Nuclear Receptors: From Structure to the Clinic (pp. 59–72). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, April 24). Self-Driving Car Travels 3,400 Miles Across America. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Examples of Job Hopping by Commercial Drivers After Failing Drug Tests (GAO-08-829R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beverley, D. (2014). Golf as a tool for executive leadership development [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo, K. (2014, February 23). Tom Allen on His 32-Country Solo Bike Ride and the Video He Made About It. New York Times, TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watson, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Poggio & Bizzi, 2004; Watson, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poggio & Bizzi, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Usami et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Turner et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthopsychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-9432
ISSN (online)1939-0025
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Psychology (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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