How to format your references using the Applied Computing and Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Computing and Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kanamori, H., 2008. Earthquake physics and real-time seismology. Nature 451, 271–273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vecchi, G.A., Soden, B.J., 2007. Effect of remote sea surface temperature change on tropical cyclone potential intensity. Nature 450, 1066–1070.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jankowski, P., McKellar, A.R.W., Szalewicz, K., 2012. Theory untangles the high-resolution infrared spectrum of the ortho-H2-CO van der Waals complex. Science 336, 1147–1150.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Plane, J.M.C., Murray, B.J., Chu, X., Gardner, C.S., 2004. Removal of meteoric iron on polar mesospheric clouds. Science 304, 426–428.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voldman, S.H., 2006. ESD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Gorodetsky, V., Liu, J., Skormin, V.A. (Eds.), 2005. Autonomous Intelligent Systems: Agents and Data Mining: International Workshop, AIS-ADM 2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 6-8, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pace, J.F., Formosa, S., 2013. Spatio-Temporal Concepts and the Sociophysical Realities Impinging on the Rehabilitation of Incarcerated Youth, in: Azzopardi, A. (Ed.), Youth: Responding to Lives: An International Reader. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Computing and Geosciences.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. This Cute Falcon Chick Was Rescued At CERN [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. National Highway System: Refinements Would Strengthen the System (No. T-RCED-94-136). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glock, M., 2008. Cultural futuristics: Bringing consciousness to cultural complexes and soul to scenario based planning (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, G., 2012. Opera of the Soul, Sparsely Staged. New York Times 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kanamori, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kanamori, 2008; Vecchi and Soden, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vecchi and Soden, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Plane et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Computing and Geosciences
ISSN (print)2590-1974

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