How to format your references using the Applied Computing and Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Computing and Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blumberg, B.S., 2008. Obituary: Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008). Nature 452, 422.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levine, M., Tjian, R., 2003. Transcription regulation and animal diversity. Nature 424, 147–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Atran, S., Axelrod, R., Davis, R., 2007. Social science. Sacred barriers to conflict resolution. Science 317, 1039–1040.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barlow, J., França, F., Gardner, T.A., Hicks, C.C., Lennox, G.D., Berenguer, E., Castello, L., Economo, E.P., Ferreira, J., Guénard, B., Gontijo Leal, C., Isaac, V., Lees, A.C., Parr, C.L., Wilson, S.K., Young, P.J., Graham, N.A.J., 2018. The future of hyperdiverse tropical ecosystems. Nature 559, 517–526.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dacey, J.S., Mack, M.D., Fiore, L.B., 2016. Your Anxious Child. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Keshtgar, M., Pigott, K., Wenz, F. (Eds.), 2014. Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Oncology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Yong, C., Booth, D.C., 2012. Seismic hazard and risk assessment, in: Booth, D.C. (Ed.), The Wenchuan Earthquake of 2008: Anatomy of a Disaster. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 160–185.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Computing and Geosciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. How Notorious HIV Is Being Hijacked To Tackle Cancer [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Army Aviation Requirements (No. NSIAD-96-81R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aloe-Chase, S.T., 2008. Family member perspectives on collaboration: An exploratory study (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Film Series. New York Times C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blumberg, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Blumberg, 2008; Levine and Tjian, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levine and Tjian, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Barlow et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Computing and Geosciences
ISSN (print)2590-1974

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