How to format your references using the Applied Computing and Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Computing and Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamaguchi, A., 2001. Sex differences in vocal learning in birds. Nature 411, 257–258.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wollert, T., Hurley, J.H., 2010. Molecular mechanism of multivesicular body biogenesis by ESCRT complexes. Nature 464, 864–869.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn, C.H., Rabe, K.M., Triscone, J.-M., 2004. Ferroelectricity at the nanoscale: local polarization in oxide thin films and heterostructures. Science 303, 488–491.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, K., Guo, J.Z., Peng, Y., Xi, W., Guo, A., 2007. Dopamine-mushroom body circuit regulates saliency-based decision-making in Drosophila. Science 316, 1901–1904.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Haik, B., Roy, D.M., 2005. Service Design for Six Sigma. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Herout, A., 2013. Real-Time Detection of Lines and Grids: By PClines and Other Approaches, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, L., Wu, C.-K., 2006. Authenticated Group Key Agreement for Multicast, in: Pointcheval, D., Mu, Y., Chen, K. (Eds.), Cryptology and Network Security: 5th International Conference, CANS 2006, Suzhou, China, December 8-10, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 55–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Computing and Geosciences.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. It’s A Busy Month For Asteroids Flying Past Earth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. [Comments on H.R. 4086] (No. B-208159.9). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adler, A.D., 2012. Change in Automatic and Strategic Cognition: An Examination of Cognitive Therapy for Depression (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2016. Disappearing Act: The Art and Fraud of Faking Your Own Death. New York Times C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yamaguchi, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wollert and Hurley, 2010; Yamaguchi, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wollert and Hurley, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Computing and Geosciences
ISSN (print)2590-1974

Other styles