How to format your references using the Applied Computing and Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Computing and Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Catterall, W.A., 2001. Physiology. A one-domain voltage-gated sodium channel in bacteria. Science 294, 2306–2308.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davies, N.B., Welbergen, J.A., 2009. Social transmission of a host defense against cuckoo parasitism. Science 324, 1318–1320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Quoidbach, J., Gilbert, D.T., Wilson, T.D., 2013. The end of history illusion. Science 339, 96–98.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, H., Gilbert, B., Huang, F., Banfield, J.F., 2003. Water-driven structure transformation in nanoparticles at room temperature. Nature 424, 1025–1029.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goldstein, A.P., 2004. The Psychology of Group Aggression. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Dunlap, B.J. (Ed.), 2015. Proceedings of the 1990 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference, Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Mills, P.R., 2009. Folk Housing in the Middle of the Pacific: Architectural Lime, Creolized Ideologies, and Expressions of Power in Nineteenth-Century Hawaii, in: White, C. (Ed.), The Materiality of Individuality: Archaeological Studies of Individual Lives. Springer US, New York, NY, pp. 75–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Computing and Geosciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Engineers develop “e-whiskers” that could give robots the ability to “see” and “feel” their environment [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Highlights of a Forum: Financial Literacy: The Role of the Workplace (No. GAO-15-639SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nevin, M.J., 2017. Addressing the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Methods Associated with Participation in Student Government Associations: A Qualitative Study of California Community Colleges (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Atlas, J., 2017. Headed for the Graveyard of Books. New York Times BR21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Catterall, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Catterall, 2001; Davies and Welbergen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davies and Welbergen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Computing and Geosciences
ISSN (print)2590-1974

Other styles