How to format your references using the Applied Computing and Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Computing and Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alonso, J.-M., 2006. Neuroscience. Neurons find strength through synchrony in the brain. Science 312, 1604–1605.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cui, Y., Lieber, C.M., 2001. Functional nanoscale electronic devices assembled using silicon nanowire building blocks. Science 291, 851–853.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bishop, J.K.B., Davis, R.E., Sherman, J.T., 2002. Robotic observations of dust storm enhancement of carbon biomass in the North Pacific. Science 298, 817–821.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ritchie, K.B., Nagelkerken, I., James, S., Smith, G.W., 2000. A tetrodotoxin-producing marine pathogen. Nature 404, 354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karr, R., 2009. Lead, Sell, or Get Out of the Way. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sadler, T.D. (Ed.), 2011. Socio-scientific Issues in the Classroom: Teaching, Learning and Research, Contemporary Trends and Issues in Science Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Zheng, R., Hua, C., 2016. Adversarial Multi-armed Bandit, in: Hua, C. (Ed.), Sequential Learning and Decision-Making in Wireless Resource Management, Wireless Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 41–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Computing and Geosciences.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Some Earth-Like Exoplanets May Have Started as Mini-Neptunes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Air Traffic Control: Efforts to Modernize Oceanic System Delayed (No. IMTEC-91-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, S.M., 2017. The Relationship Between Political Affiliation and Student Achievement in the Areas of Reading and Mathematics, with Respect to Black Students (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Times, T.N.Y., 2016. What Else Is on the Ballot in the U.S.? Minimum Wage, Death Penalty and Guns. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alonso, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Alonso, 2006; Cui and Lieber, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cui and Lieber, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Ritchie et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Computing and Geosciences
ISSN (print)2590-1974

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