How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovett RA. Olympic talent. Nature. 2007;448(7149):104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maillard I, Saltiel AR. Metabolism: Inflammation keeps old mice healthy. Nature. 2015;528(7580):44-46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nisbet EG, Dlugokencky EJ, Bousquet P. Atmospheric science. Methane on the rise--again. Science. 2014;343(6170):493-495.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Naebe M, Wang J, Amini A, et al. Mechanical property and structure of covalent functionalised graphene/epoxy nanocomposites. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4375.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossner W, Graubner C-A. Spannbetonbauwerke. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Punter A. Psychometric Framework for Modeling Parental Involvement and Reading Literacy. Vol 1. (Glas CAW, Meelissen MRM, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Fan N, Mujahid S, Zhang J, et al. Nurse Scheduling Problem: An Integer Programming Model with a Practical Application. In: Pardalos PM, Georgiev PG, Papajorgji P, Neugaard B, eds. Systems Analysis Tools for Better Health Care Delivery. Springer Optimization and Its Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2013:65-98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacy Research.

Blog post
Fang J. Marine Ecosystems Took 3 Million Years To Recover After The Great Dying. IFLScience. Published June 16, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Communications: Mobile Subscriber Equipment Testing Issues and Army Improvement Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felarca CU. A burning problem: Skin protection practices among college nursing students and non-nursing college students. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. A Federal Program Helps Flip Houses on Long Island. New York Times. May 17, 2009:LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacy Research
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0974-6943
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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