How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Julien MH. Physics. Magnetic fields make waves in cuprates. Science. 2015;350(6263):914-915.
A journal article with 2 authors
Laflamme MA, Murry CE. Heart regeneration. Nature. 2011;473(7347):326-335.
A journal article with 3 authors
He C, Jiang SP, Shen PK. Large-scale and rapid synthesis of disk-shaped and nano-sized graphene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2144.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sporea RA, Trainor MJ, Young ND, Shannon JM, Silva SRP. Source-gated transistors for order-of-magnitude performance improvements in thin-film digital circuits. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Al-Malah KIM. Aspen Plus®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Boulabiar K, Buskes G, Triki A, eds. Positivity. Birkhäuser; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Zachman RC. God Manifested in God’s Works: The Knowledge of God in the Reformed Tradition. In: Cherry MJ, ed. The Death of Metaphysics; the Death of Culture: Epistemology, Metaphysics, and Morality. Philosophical Studies in Contemporary Culture. Springer Netherlands; 2006:71-97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacy Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. ESA Is About To Pick A New Space Mission To Launch In 2025. IFLScience. Published May 5, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Question Concerning Whether Funds Available Under Career Education Incentive Act Were Illegally Rescinded. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Okada T. Corporate Culture and Organizational Efficiency in the Competitive International Market. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Battle Over a Pillar to Nobel Yields No Statue, No Peace. New York Times. May 13, 2001:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacy Research
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0974-6943
ScopePharmaceutical Science

Other styles