How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
La Madeleine BL. Lost in translation. Nature. 2007;445(7126):454-455.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bowerman B, O’Rourke SM. Development. Pushing your back into place. Science. 2012;336(6084):984-985.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuff J, Wade J, Wood BJ. Volcanism on Mars controlled by early oxidation of the upper mantle. Nature. 2013;498(7454):342-345.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Suzuki H, Imura J-I, Horio Y, Aihara K. Chaotic Boltzmann machines. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boyd RK, Basic C, Bethem RA. Trace Quantitative Analysis by Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Raddawi R, ed. Intercultural Communication with Arabs: Studies in Educational, Professional and Societal Contexts. Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Eaton M. Evolutionary Humanoid Robotics: Past, Present and Future. In: Lungarella M, Iida F, Bongard J, Pfeifer R, eds. 50 Years of Artificial Intelligence: Essays Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2007:42-52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacy Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Is A Neutron Star? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Japan and Australia. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farrell BM. Body composition changes and work-efficiency effects from diet modification and incorporation of an at-home exercise regimen. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kurdewan J. Bill Cunningham, Unpublished. New York Times. December 16, 2016:ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacy Research
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0974-6943
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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