How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aanen DK. Developmental Biology. How a long-lived fungus keeps mutations in check. Science. 2014;346(6212):922-923.
A journal article with 2 authors
Treacy MMJ, Borisenko KB. The local structure of amorphous silicon. Science. 2012;335(6071):950-953.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lovejoy CO, Heiple KG, Meindl RS. Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk? Nature. 2001;410(6826):325-326.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li YG, Ji DF, Zhong S, et al. 1-deoxynojirimycin inhibits glucose absorption and accelerates glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper JD. Soil Water Measurement. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Bronshtein IN. Handbook of Mathematics. 6th ed. 2015. (Semendyayev KA, Musiol G, Mühlig H, eds.). Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao L, Bahaa F, Wilkins M. Tetrahydrobiopterin And Pulmonary Hypertension. In: Aldashev A, Naeije R, eds. Problems of High Altitude Medicine and Biology. Springer Netherlands; 2007:69-86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacy Research.

Blog post
Andrew D. The Daily Life Of A Neanderthal Revealed From The Gunk In Their Teeth. IFLScience. Published March 10, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research and Development Budget. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wahl RJ. Agustín Barrios and Musical Identity: Tangos in Early Twentieth-Century Guitar Repertory. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J. Cagey Mayweather Saves Fireworks for Last. New York Times. August 27, 2017:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacy Research
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0974-6943
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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