How to format your references using the Energy, Sustainability and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy, Sustainability and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nielsen MW (2015) Make academic job advertisements fair to all. Nature 525:427
A journal article with 2 authors
Milo R, Last RL (2012) Achieving diversity in the face of constraints: lessons from metabolism. Science 336:1663–1667
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen X, Parker D, Singh DJ (2013) Importance of non-parabolic band effects in the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors. Sci Rep 3:3168
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lafferentz L, Ample F, Yu H, et al (2009) Conductance of a single conjugated polymer as a continuous function of its length. Science 323:1193–1197

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ursone P (2015) How to Calculate Options Prices and Their Greeks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hanson D (2009) The Coming Robot Revolution: Expectations and Fears About Emerging Intelligent, Humanlike Machines. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Da T, Li Z, Feng B (2015) A Video Steganalysis Algorithm for H.264/AVC Based on the Markov Features. In: Huang D-S, Jo K-H, Hussain A (eds) Intelligent Computing Theories and Methodologies: 11th International Conference, ICIC 2015, Fuzhou, China, August 20-23, 2015, Proceedings, Part II. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy, Sustainability and Society.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) American Ebola Patients Have Been Released From Atlanta Hospital. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Survey on State Wireless E911 Funds, an E-supplement to GAO-06-338. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felsburg DF (2008) The business of evangelism: A phenomenological study of frustration and attrition among Christian evangelists. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D (1989) In Short: Fiction. New York Times 712

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy, Sustainability and Society
AbbreviationEnergy Sustain. Soc.
ISSN (online)2192-0567

Other styles