How to format your references using the Energy, Sustainability and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy, Sustainability and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quinlan RA (2015) DRUG DISCOVERY. A new dawn for cataracts. Science 350:636–637
A journal article with 2 authors
Prather MJ, Hsu J (2010) Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry. Science 330:952–954
A journal article with 3 authors
Bell FI, McEwen IJ, Viney C (2002) Fibre science: supercontraction stress in wet spider dragline. Nature 416:37
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Denisov EV, Litviakov NV, Zavyalova MV, et al (2014) Intratumoral morphological heterogeneity of breast cancer: neoadjuvant chemotherapy efficiency and multidrug resistance gene expression. Sci Rep 4:4709

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wittcoff HA, Reuben BG, Plotkin JS (2012) Industrial Organic Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Field J, Vasconcelos VT (2009) Coordination Models and Languages: 11th International Conference, COORDINATION 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, June 9-12, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Abrão AM, Ribeiro JLS, Davim JP (2011) Surface Integrity. In: Davim JP (ed) Machining of Hard Materials. Springer, London, pp 115–141

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy, Sustainability and Society.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Western Australia Will Not Continue Shark Cull. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Analysis of the Energy Research and Development Budget Proposal Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mehta K (2015) An optimized modified booth recoder for efficient design of the add-multiply operator. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mozur P, Markoff J (2017) Is China Outsmarting America in Artificial Intelligence? New York Times BU1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy, Sustainability and Society
AbbreviationEnergy Sustain. Soc.
ISSN (online)2192-0567

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