How to format your references using the Acta Geotechnica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Geotechnica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hittinger CT (2012) Evolution. Endless rots most beautiful. Science 336:1649–1650
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevens B, Bony S (2013) Climate change. What are climate models missing? Science 340:1053–1054
A journal article with 3 authors
Bryden HL, Longworth HR, Cunningham SA (2005) Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25 degrees N. Nature 438:655–657
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Koo HC, Kwon JH, Eom J, et al (2009) Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor. Science 325:1515–1518

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davino C, Furno M, Vistocco D (2014) Quantile Regression: Theory and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Kytmanov AM (2015) Multidimensional Integral Representations: Problems of Analytic Continuation, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Assavapokee T, Realff MJ, Ammons JC (2009) A Relative Robust Optimization Approach for Full Factorial Scenario Design of Data Uncertainty and Ambiguity. In: Chaovalitwongse W, Furman KC, Pardalos PM (eds) Optimization and Logistics Challenges in the Enterprise. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 145–174

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Geotechnica.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Museum’s Blue Whale Skeleton Found To Be A “Time Capsule” From 1930s. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017) High Risk: Actions Needed to Address Serious Weaknesses in Federal Management of Programs Serving Indian Tribes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez G (2013) Undocumented students in higher education: A grant project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Reconditioned Harvey Impresses in Winning Return for the Mets. New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Geotechnica
AbbreviationActa Geotech.
ISSN (print)1861-1125
ISSN (online)1861-1133
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles