How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. FitzGerald GA. BIOMEDICINE. Bringing PGE₂ in from the cold. Science. 2015;348:1208–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Brown JKM, Hovmøller MS. Aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease. Science. 2002;297:537–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ghaffari HO, Nasseri MHB, Young RP. Faulting of rocks in a three-dimensional stress field by micro-anticracks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5011.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gröblacher S, Hammerer K, Vanner MR, Aspelmeyer M. Observation of strong coupling between a micromechanical resonator and an optical cavity field. Nature. 2009;460:724–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hahn-Deinstrop E. Dünnschicht-Chromatographie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
1. Sworder DD. Locating, Classifying and Countering Agile Land Vehicles: With Applications to Command Architectures. 1st ed. 2016. Boyd JE, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ringeisen BR, Othon CM, Wu X, Krizman DB, Darfler MM, Anders JJ, et al. Biological Laser Printing (BioLP) for High Resolution Cell Deposition. In: Ringeisen BR, Spargo BJ, Wu PK, editors. Cell and Organ Printing. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 81–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. New Finding Offers Breakthrough In Beating African Sleeping Sickness. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Public Transit: Transit Agencies’ Use of Contracting to Provide Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Sep. Report No.: GAO-13-782.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Spanier AJ. The Relationship of Genes and Environment with Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Billard M. Sky’s the Limit: Yogis Head Outdoors. New York Times. 2011 Jun 19;MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Innovation
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Innov.
ISSN (print)1872-5120
ISSN (online)1939-8042
ScopeDrug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

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