How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Crabtree RH. Chemistry. A new oxidation state for Pd? Science. 2002;295:288–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Day M, Morris RG. Memory consolidation and NMDA receptors: discrepancy between genetic and pharmacological approaches. Science. 2001;293:755.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Williamson CE, Saros JE, Schindler DW. Climate change. Sentinels of change. Science. 2009;323:887–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Suzuki Y, Niu G, Hughes GL, Rasgon JL. A viral over-expression system for the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5127.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bullard B. Style and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Chudnovsky D, Chudnovsky G, editors. Additive Number Theory: Festschrift In Honor of the Sixtieth Birthday of Melvyn B. Nathanson. 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pistrosch F, Hanefeld M. The Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer. In: Beck-Nielsen H, editor. The Metabolic Syndrome: Pharmacology and Clinical Aspects. Vienna: Springer; 2013. p. 55–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation.

Blog post
1. Hale T. The Gorgeous Night Skies Of Yellowstone National Park Captured In A Time-Lapse Video. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport Development: Improvement Needed in Federal Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Feb. Report No.: T-RCED-92-30.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ward D. Teaching with the End in Mind: A Teacher’s Life History as a Legacy of Educational Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. Yelling About Sex. New York Times. 2017 Feb 10;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Innovation
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Innov.
ISSN (print)1872-5120
ISSN (online)1939-8042
ScopeDrug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

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