How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.A. Jorgensen, Plant science. A window on the sophistication of plants, Science. 333 (2011) 1103–1104.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.K. Pullum, B.C. Scholz, More than words, Nature. 413 (2001) 367.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.T. Geng, J.-S. Wang, G.B. Olson, Comment on “Grain boundary decohesion by impurity segregation in a nickel-sulfur system,” Science. 309 (2005) 1677; author reply 1677.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Meylan, J. Curran, K. Hofmann, D. Moradpour, M. Binder, R. Bartenschlager, J. Tschopp, Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus, Nature. 437 (2005) 1167–1172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Bonnet, Enterprise Data Governance, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
H.-J. Kreowski, B. Scholz-Reiter, K.-D. Thoben, eds., Dynamics in Logistics: Second International Conference, LDIC 2009, Bremen, Germany, August 2009, Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Ferrari-Filho, L.F. de Paula, The Impact of the Great Recession and Policy Responses in Latin America: Was This Time Different?, in: P. Arestis, M. Sawyer (Eds.), Emerging Economies During and After the Great Recession, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 154–194.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Fern Gene Has Strange And Sexy Origins, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Technology Transfer: Several Factors Have Led to a Decline in Partnerships at DOE’s Laboratories, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.K. Blackwell, Timbre Fantasy: An Analysis on Coloristic Choices in John Corigliano’s Etude Fantasy, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Flores, Mets’ Lone Holdout, Wins His Arbitration Case, New York Times. (2017) SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Anal.
ISSN (print)2095-1779
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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