How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I. Fuyuno, Stuck in the middle, Nature. 442 (2006) 237.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.A. Norton, R.K. Didham, Comment on “Why are there so many species of herbivorous insects in tropical rainforests?,” Science. 315 (2007) 1666; author reply 1666.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Knigge, N. Leigh, A. Sills, A binary origin for “blue stragglers” in globular clusters, Nature. 457 (2009) 288–290.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Xu, Y. Feng, H. Peng, D. Guo, T. Li, Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis of cohort studies, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6982.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.T. Wells, Corporate Fraud Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
K. Daniilidis, P. Maragos, N. Paragios, eds., Computer Vision – ECCV 2010: 11th European Conference on Computer Vision, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 5-11, 2010, Proceedings, Part IV, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
A.F. Budd, J.S. Klaus, Early Evolution of the Montastraea “annularis” Species Complex (Anthozoa: Scleractinia): Evidence from the Mio-Pliocene of the Dominican Republic, in: R.H. Nehm, A.F. Budd (Eds.), Evolutionary Stasis and Change in the Dominican Republic Neogene, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008: pp. 85–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Astronomers Just Discovered One Of The Most Massive Objects In The Universe Hiding Behind The Milky Way, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Airspace System: Status of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Yasami, Ultra-Low Power RFIC for Space/Medical/Mobile Applications, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Rojas, E.G. Fitzsimmons, Crane Collapse Kills Man on Busy Manhattan Block, New York Times. (2016) A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Anal.
ISSN (print)2095-1779
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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