How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.W. Kirchner, Evolutionary speed limits inferred from the fossil record, Nature. 415 (2002) 65–68.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.H. Lee, A. Amon, Role of Polo-like kinase CDC5 in programming meiosis I chromosome segregation, Science. 300 (2003) 482–486.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Haerizadeh, M.B. Singh, P.L. Bhalla, Transcriptional repression distinguishes somatic from germ cell lineages in a plant, Science. 313 (2006) 496–499.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Lin, Y. Liu, U. Halim, M. Ding, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Jia, P. Chen, X. Duan, C. Wang, F. Song, M. Li, C. Wan, Y. Huang, X. Duan, Solution-processable 2D semiconductors for high-performance large-area electronics, Nature. 562 (2018) 254–258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Lane, Magnolia, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
A. Foxley, B. Stallings, eds., Innovation and Inclusion in Latin America: Strategies to Avoid the Middle Income Trap, Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
J.J. Muñoz, N. Rabiei, A. Lyamin, A. Huerta, Computation of Bounds for Anchor Problems in Limit Analysis and Decomposition Techniques, in: K. Spiliopoulos, D. Weichert (Eds.), Direct Methods for Limit States in Structures and Materials, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 79–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Success Story In Hepatitis C Combination Therapy, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Health Information Technology: Early Efforts Initiated but Comprehensive Privacy Approach Needed for National Strategy, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.M. Kaplan, Understanding the Anxiolytic Effects of Alcohol on the Central Extended Amygdala in Humans, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Haberman, M. Mazzetti, M. Apuzzo, Kushner is Said to Have Mulled Russia Channel, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Anal.
ISSN (print)2095-1779
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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