How to format your references using the Aquatic Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gates MF (2014) Putting women and girls at the center of development. Science 345:1273–1275
A journal article with 2 authors
Mochida S, Hunt T (2007) Calcineurin is required to release Xenopus egg extracts from meiotic M phase. Nature 449:336–340
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyer zu Heringdorf FJ, Reuter MC, Tromp RM (2001) Growth dynamics of pentacene thin films. Nature 412:517–520
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schön JH, Kloc C, Hwang HY, Batlogg B (2001) Josephson junctions with tunable weak links. Science 292:252–254

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marroni L, Perdomo I (2013) Pricing and Hedging Financial Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Rzoska SJ, Mazur VA (eds) (2007) Soft Matter under Exogenic Impacts. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Genz A, Bretz F (2009) Methods That Approximate the Integral. In: Bretz F (ed) Computation of Multivariate Normal and t Probabilities. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 29–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Ecology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) The Social Status of Monkeys Alters Their Immune Response. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Training Procurement: Weaknesses Identified in NTSB Procurement Practices. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson VM (2013) In vitro thyroid hormone metabolism: Effects of nuclear receptor activation on the metabolic profiles of thyroxine in rat and human hepatocytes. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2002) World Briefing | Europe: Belarus: Protesters Sentenced. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gates 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Mochida and Hunt 2007; Gates 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mochida and Hunt 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Schön et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Ecology
AbbreviationAquat. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1386-2588
ISSN (online)1573-5125
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Agricultural and Biological Sciences

Other styles