How to format your references using the Journal of Palliative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Palliative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow N. Nanotechnology: could it be a small world after all? Nature. 2008 Apr 17;452(7189):901–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Russell DG, Nathan CF. Perspective: Graduation time. Nature. 2013 Oct 10;502(7470):S7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parker HJ, Bronner ME, Krumlauf R. A Hox regulatory network of hindbrain segmentation is conserved to the base of vertebrates. Nature. 2014 Oct 23;514(7523):490–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rappuoli R, Del Giudice G, Nabel GJ, Osterhaus ADME, Robinson R, Salisbury D, et al. Public health. Rethinking influenza. Science. 2009 Oct 2;326(5949):50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wesley LD. Geotechnical Engineering in Residual Soils. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Cin MD, Kaâniche M, Pataricza A, editors. Dependable Computing - EDCC 5: 5th European Dependable Computing Conference, Budapest, Hungary, April 20-22, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XVI, 480 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3463).
A chapter in an edited book
Hamooni H, Chavoshi N, Mueen A. On URL Changes and Handovers in Social Media. In: Spiro E, Ahn Y-Y, editors. Social Informatics: 8th International Conference, SocInfo 2016, Bellevue, WA, USA, November 11-14, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 58–74. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Palliative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Neonicotinoids Linked To Wild Bee And Butterfly Declines In Europe And US [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Procedures for Registering and Certifying Air Carriers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 May. Report No.: RCED-87-115FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fearrington ND. The relationship between fathers’ pre -natal involvement with the mother and post -natal involvement with the child(ren) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W. Peace-Talk Critic Takes Lead in Colombia Presidential Vote. New York Times. 2014 May 26;A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Palliative Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Palliat. Med.
ISSN (print)1096-6218
ISSN (online)1557-7740
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
General Nursing

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