How to format your references using the Journal of Palliative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Palliative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Making a Splash With a Hint of Mars Water. Science. 2000 Jun 30;288(5475):2295–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aussillous P, Quéré D. Liquid marbles. Nature. 2001 Jun 21;411(6840):924–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansen B, Turrell WR, Østerhus S. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950. Nature. 2001 Jun 21;411(6840):927–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Turchin P, Oksanen L, Ekerholm P, Oksanen T, Henttonen H. Are lemmings prey or predators? Nature. 2000 Jun 1;405(6786):562–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chadwick P. Person-Based Cognitive Therapy for Distressing Psychosis. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Wyn J, Cahill H, editors. Handbook of Children and Youth Studies. Singapore: Springer; 2015. 47 illus., 29 illus. in color. eReference.
A chapter in an edited book
Monahan TS. Microvascular Changes in the Diabetic Foot. In: Shrikhande GV, McKinsey JF, editors. Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease: Diagnosis and Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2012. p. 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Palliative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ten Years After The De Menezes Killing, We’re No Better At Identifying Faces. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Loans: Default Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Aug. Report No.: HRD-93-117FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores MY. Delinquency prevention program for Latino youth: A grant proposal project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M, Shorey R. Inside the Uproar Over a Government-Led Search for Voter Fraud. New York Times. 2017 Jul 7;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Palliative Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Palliat. Med.
ISSN (print)1096-6218
ISSN (online)1557-7740
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
General Nursing

Other styles