How to format your references using the Journal of Palliative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Palliative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D. Pushing the frontiers of interdisciplinary research: an idea whose time has come. Nature. 2000 Mar 16;404(6775):313–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang X, Chory J. Brassinosteroids regulate dissociation of BKI1, a negative regulator of BRI1 signaling, from the plasma membrane. Science. 2006 Aug 25;313(5790):1118–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oliveira RF, Carneiro LA, Canário AVM. Behavioural endocrinology: no hormonal response in tied fights. Nature. 2005 Sep 8;437(7056):207–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bansal D, Miyake K, Vogel SS, Groh S, Chen C-C, Williamson R, et al. Defective membrane repair in dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy. Nature. 2003 May 8;423(6936):168–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter M. From GSM to LTE-Advanced. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Moreira AL, Saqi A, editors. Diagnosing Non-small Cell Carcinoma in Small Biopsy and Cytology. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. X, 229 p. 81 illus., 80 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Ogryczak W. WOWA Enhancement of the Preference Modeling in the Reference Point Method. In: Torra V, Narukawa Y, editors. Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference, MDAI 2008 Sabadell, Spain, October 30-31, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 38–49. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Palliative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. The Great Barrier Reef’s ‘New Normal’ Is A Forlorn Sight [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: GAO Assessment of DOD Responsive Launch Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Oct. Report No.: GAO-16-156R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuknis CM. A grounded theory of deaf middle school students’ revision of their own writing [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Doing Business In Small Quarters. New York Times. 2000 Nov 5;14WC8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Palliative Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Palliat. Med.
ISSN (print)1096-6218
ISSN (online)1557-7740
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
General Nursing

Other styles