How to format your references using the Journal of Palliative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Palliative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Messersmith PB. Materials science. Holding on by a hard-shell thread. Science. 2010 Apr 9;328(5975):180–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mounce RCP, Wills MA. Phylogenetic position of Diania challenged. Nature. 2011 Aug 10;476(7359):E1; discussion E3-4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asaadi N, Ribe NM, Sobouti F. Inferring nonlinear mantle rheology from the shape of the Hawaiian swell. Nature. 2011 May 26;473(7348):501–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kochuveedu ST, Son T, Lee Y, Lee M, Kim D, Kim DH. Revolutionizing the FRET-based light emission in core-shell nanostructures via comprehensive activity of surface plasmons. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 22;4:4735.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fulton BS. Drug Discovery for the Treatment of Addiction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Bosch TCG. The Holobiont Imperative: Perspectives from Early Emerging Animals. 1st ed. 2016. Miller DJ, editor. Vienna: Springer; 2016. X, 155 p. 57 illus., 6 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghosh S, Elenius D, Li W, Lincoln P, Shankar N, Steiner W. ARSENAL: Automatic Requirements Specification Extraction from Natural Language. In: Rayadurgam S, Tkachuk O, editors. NASA Formal Methods: 8th International Symposium, NFM 2016, Minneapolis, MN, USA, June 7-9, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 41–6. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Palliative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2011 Japan Tsunami Debris Is Washing Up Along The Coasts Of The United States [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Global Warming: Limitations of General Circulation Models and Costs of Modeling Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jul. Report No.: RCED-95-164.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winer EJ. Elementary School Consolidation and Reconfiguration: An Autoethnographic Case Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Soccer Is Welcome At Home of Sox. New York Times. 2012 Jul 26;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Palliative Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Palliat. Med.
ISSN (print)1096-6218
ISSN (online)1557-7740
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
General Nursing

Other styles