How to format your references using the Classroom Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classroom Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peercy, P. S. 2000. “The Drive to Miniaturization.” Nature 406 (6799): 1023–1026.
A journal article with 2 authors
Malakoff, D., and A. Cho. 2000. “MILITARY RESEARCH: Researchers Target Flaws in Ballistic Missile Defense Plan.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 288 (5473): 1940–1941.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ogata, Shigenobu, Ju Li, and Sidney Yip. 2002. “Ideal Pure Shear Strength of Aluminum and Copper.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5594): 807–811.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mohammed, Omar F., Dina Pines, Jens Dreyer, Ehud Pines, and Erik T. J. Nibbering. 2005. “Sequential Proton Transfer through Water Bridges in Acid-Base Reactions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5745): 83–86.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nakhjiri, Madjid, and Mahsa Nakhjiri. 2006. AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nowak, Raphaël, and Andrew Whelan, eds. 2016. Networked Music Cultures: Contemporary Approaches, Emerging Issues. Pop Music, Culture and Identity. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Quan, Sun. 2010. “Factors Affecting Consumer Intentions to Acceptance Banking Services in China.” In Advances in Wireless Networks and Information Systems, edited by Qi Luo, 27–34. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classroom Discourse.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Do You Hear What I Hear? Amazing Auditory Illusions Explained.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Implementation of Section 203, Public Law 91-441, on Payments for Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. B-167034. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Catalini, Meredith. 2012. “Intrinsic Rewards Increase Job Performance within an Organization.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, Benjamin, and A. L. Baker. 2017. “Police Officer Is ‘Murdered for Her Uniform’ at Post in the Bronx.” New York Times, July 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peercy 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Peercy 2000; Malakoff and Cho 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Malakoff and Cho 2000)
  • Three authors: (Ogata, Li, and Yip 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mohammed et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleClassroom Discourse
ISSN (print)1946-3014
ISSN (online)1946-3022

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