How to format your references using the Classroom Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classroom Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hatten, Mary E. 2002. “New Directions in Neuronal Migration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5587): 1660–1663.
A journal article with 2 authors
Regev, Aviv, and Ehud Shapiro. 2002. “Cells as Computation.” Nature 419 (6905): 343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, Hong Koo, George W. Hanson, and David A. Geller. 2013. “Chemistry. Are Gold Clusters in RF Fields Hot or Not?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6131): 441–442.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kumar, Abhishek, Ananyo Maitra, Madhuresh Sumit, Sriram Ramaswamy, and G. V. Shivashankar. 2014. “Actomyosin Contractility Rotates the Cell Nucleus.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Oden, J. Tinsley. 2011. An Introduction to Mathematical Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Demmig-Adams, Barbara, William W. Adams, and Autar K. Mattoo, eds. 2006. Photoprotection, Photoinhibition, Gene Regulation, and Environment. Vol. 21. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Asrani, Rajesh. 2015. “Economic Implications of Intellectual Property Rights in Evolving Markets.” In Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: Perspectives from Emerging Economies, edited by Mathew J. Manimala and Kishinchand Poornima Wasdani, 109–131. New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classroom Discourse.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “A 700,000-Year-Old Fossil Find Shows The Hobbits’ Ancestors Were Even Smaller.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. AIP Funding for the Nation’s Largest Airports. RCED-96-219R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clayton-Clark, Candi. 2012. “Academic Performance Strategies Implemented by Successful California Superintendents in Low-Performing School Districts.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leibovich, Mark. 2013. “The Redemption of the Slugger.” New York Times, October 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hatten 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hatten 2002; Regev and Shapiro 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Regev and Shapiro 2002)
  • Three authors: (Kim, Hanson, and Geller 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kumar et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleClassroom Discourse
ISSN (print)1946-3014
ISSN (online)1946-3022

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