How to format your references using the Classroom Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classroom Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cahn, R. W. 2001. “Genesis by Definition.” Nature 410 (6826): 307.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilfanov, Marat, and Akos Bogdán. 2010. “An Upper Limit on the Contribution of Accreting White Dwarfs to the Type Ia Supernova Rate.” Nature 463 (7283): 924–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Logoteta, Demetrio, Gianluca Fiori, and Giuseppe Iannaccone. 2014. “Graphene-Based Lateral Heterostructure Transistors Exhibit Better Intrinsic Performance than Graphene-Based Vertical Transistors as Post-CMOS Devices.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6607.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Okura, Takafumi, Ken-Ichi Miyoshi, Jun Irita, Daijiro Enomoto, Tomoaki Nagao, Masayoshi Kukida, Akiko Tanino, Kayo Kudo, Zouwei Pei, and Jitsuo Higaki. 2014. “Hyperhomocysteinemia Is One of the Risk Factors Associated with Cerebrovascular Stiffness in Hypertensive Patients, Especially Elderly Males.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M. R., A. B. Chhetri, and M. M. Khan. 2010. The Greening of Petroleum Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bona, Carles. 2009. Elements of Numerical Relativity and Relativistic Hydrodynamics: From Einstein’ s Equations to Astrophysical Simulations. Edited by Carlos Palenzuela-Luque and Carles Bona-Casas. Vol. 783. Lecture Notes in Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Efremov, Sergey, Nikolay Pilipenko, Leonid Voskov, and Mikhail Komarov. 2015. “Cloud IoT Platforms: A Solid Foundation for the Future Web or a Temporary Workaround?” In Internet of Things, Smart Spaces, and Next Generation Networks and Systems: 15th International Conference, NEW2AN 2015, and 8th Conference, RuSMART 2015, St. Petersburg, Russia, August 26-28, 2015, Proceedings, edited by Sergey Balandin, Sergey Andreev, and Yevgeni Koucheryavy, 47–55. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classroom Discourse.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Biologists Say They Found The First Great White Shark Nursery In Long Island.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Comments on Legislation To Establish a Department of Education. B-149737. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mersch, Courtney. 2012. “Campus-Based Drunk-Driving Intervention Program: A Grant Proposal Project.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Risen, James. 2016. “Trump Can Target Journalists, Thanks to Obama.” New York Times, December 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cahn 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Cahn 2001; Gilfanov and Bogdán 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gilfanov and Bogdán 2010)
  • Three authors: (Logoteta, Fiori, and Iannaccone 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Okura et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleClassroom Discourse
ISSN (print)1946-3014
ISSN (online)1946-3022

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