How to format your references using the Classroom Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classroom Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, Michael M. 2013. “Digital Learning: Look, Then Leap.” Nature 499 (7458): 275–277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toggweiler, J. R., and Joellen Russell. 2008. “Ocean Circulation in a Warming Climate.” Nature 451 (7176): 286–288.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Dokkum, Pieter G., Mariska Kriek, and Marijn Franx. 2009. “A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion for a Compact Massive Galaxy at Redshift z = 2.186.” Nature 460 (7256): 717–719.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Lixia, Yuan Wang, Zhaohe Li, Zhan Gao, and Shicui Zhang. 2013. “Functional Characterization of Protein 4.1 Homolog in Amphioxus: Defining a Cryptic Spectrin-Actin-Binding Site.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 2873.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruiz, Jose-Luis. 2017. Supra-Gingival Minimally Invasive Dentistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Manzullo, Ellen F., Carmen Esther Gonzalez, Carmen P. Escalante, and Sai-Ching J. Yeung, eds. 2016. Oncologic Emergencies. 1st ed. 2016. MD Anderson Cancer Care Series. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Hongjun. 2014. “Pathogenetic and Pathological Mechanism.” In Radiology of HIV/AIDS: A Practical Approach, edited by Hongjun Li, 31–34. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classroom Discourse.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “Scientists Want To Study LSD Microdosing For The First Time, But They Need Your Help.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Aviation Safety: Needed Improvements in FAA’s Airline Inspection Program Are Underway. RCED-87-62. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ackerman, Gary L. 2009. “Information Technology in the K–12 Classroom: Curriculum and Instruction Reflecting Emerging Capacity and Paradigms.” Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tavernise, Sabrina. 2015. “Russian Tourists Gain Appreciation for the Motherland.” New York Times, August 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Crow 2013; Toggweiler and Russell 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Toggweiler and Russell 2008)
  • Three authors: (van Dokkum, Kriek, and Franx 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleClassroom Discourse
ISSN (print)1946-3014
ISSN (online)1946-3022

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