How to format your references using the Classroom Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classroom Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wassarman, Paul M. 2011. “Development. The Sperm’s Sweet Tooth.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6050): 1708–1709.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, Timothy J., and David M. J. Lilley. 2009. “Biochemistry. The Evolution of Ribozyme Chemistry.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5920): 1436–1438.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Z. X., A. W. Crompton, and A. L. Sun. 2001. “A New Mammaliaform from the Early Jurassic and Evolution of Mammalian Characteristics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5521): 1535–1540.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chi, Ping, Yu Chen, Lei Zhang, Xingyi Guo, John Wongvipat, Tambudzai Shamu, Jonathan A. Fletcher, et al. 2010. “ETV1 Is a Lineage Survival Factor That Cooperates with KIT in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours.” Nature 467 (7317): 849–853.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allerton, David. 2009. Principles of Flight Simulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sojka, Petr, Ivan Kopeček, and Karel Pala, eds. 2006. Text, Speech and Dialogue: 9th International Conference, TSD 2006, Brno, Czech Republic, September 11-15, 2006. Proceedings. Vol. 4188. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gürses, Ahmet, Metin Açıkyıldız, Kübra Güneş, and M. Sadi Gürses. 2016. “Dyeing and Dyeing Technology.” In Dyes and Pigments, edited by Metin Açıkyıldız, Kübra Güneş, and M. Sadi Gürses, 47–67. SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classroom Discourse.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “NASA Unveils Its Plan To Send Humans To Mars Permanently.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Pedestrians and Cyclists: Cities, States, and DOT Are Implementing Actions to Improve Safety. GAO-16-66. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obiedat, Mohammad. 2015. “Incrementally Sorted Lattice Data Structures.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2012. “Thousands In Moscow Rally to Call By Patriarch.” New York Times, April 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wassarman 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Wassarman 2011; Wilson and Lilley 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Lilley 2009)
  • Three authors: (Luo, Crompton, and Sun 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chi et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleClassroom Discourse
ISSN (print)1946-3014
ISSN (online)1946-3022

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