How to format your references using the Classroom Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Classroom Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Quirin. 2007. “A Change of Gear at Siemens.” Nature 448 (7156): 852–853.
A journal article with 2 authors
Macquaker, Joe H. S., and Kevin M. Bohacs. 2007. “Geology. On the Accumulation of Mud.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5857): 1734–1735.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brengues, Muriel, Daniela Teixeira, and Roy Parker. 2005. “Movement of Eukaryotic MRNAs between Polysomes and Cytoplasmic Processing Bodies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5747): 486–489.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kurtsiefer, C., P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity. 2002. “A Step towards Global Key Distribution.” Nature 419 (6906): 450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shi, Yang, Mingxi Liu, and Fang Fang. 2017. Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Joarder, Rita. 2012. Case Studies in Chest Imaging. Edited by Neil Crundwell. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aguilar Chinea, Rosa María, Iván Castilla Rodríguez, and Roberto Carlos Muñoz González. 2009. “Hospital Resource Management.” In Simulation-Based Case Studies in Logistics: Education and Applied Research, edited by Yuri Merkuryev, Galina Merkuryeva, Miquel Àngel Piera, and Antoni Guasch, 65–84. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Classroom Discourse.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Malaria Protein Could Give Us A Broad Cancer Treatment.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Space Surveillance: DOD and NASA Need Consolidated Requirements and a Coordinated Plan. NSIAD-98-42. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison, Gillian Kye. 2010. “Self-Reported, Interview-Assisted Diet Records Underreport Protein and Energy Intake in Maintenance Hemodialysis (MHD) Patients.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2007. “Nassau Backs Bid for Regional Planning Council.” New York Times, August 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier 2007; Macquaker and Bohacs 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Macquaker and Bohacs 2007)
  • Three authors: (Brengues, Teixeira, and Parker 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kurtsiefer et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleClassroom Discourse
ISSN (print)1946-3014
ISSN (online)1946-3022

Other styles