How to format your references using the Experimental Gerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Gerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Armitage, P.J., 2013. Astronomy. A trap for planet formation. Science 340, 1179–1180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, X., Duncan, J.H., 2003. The effects of surfactants on spilling breaking waves. Nature 421, 520–523.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feldon, D.F., Maher, M.A., Timmerman, B.E., 2010. Graduate education. Performance-based data in the study of STEM Ph.D. education. Science 329, 282–283.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Niessing, J., Ebisch, B., Schmidt, K.E., Niessing, M., Singer, W., Galuske, R.A.W., 2005. Hemodynamic signals correlate tightly with synchronized gamma oscillations. Science 309, 948–951.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burkinshaw, S.M., 2016. Physico-chemical Aspects of Textile Coloration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Gómez-Pérez, A., Euzenat, J. (Eds.), 2005. The Semantic Web: Research and Applications: Second European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2005, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 29–June 1, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, W., Zu, Y., Jia, Y., 2013. Sub-channel and Power Allocation for Multiuser OFDM Systems with Proportional Rate Constraints Based on Genetic Algorithms, in: Su, J., Zhao, B., Sun, Z., Wang, X., Wang, F., Xu, K. (Eds.), Frontiers in Internet Technologies: Second CCF Internet Conference of China, ICoC 2013, Zhangjiajie, China, July 10, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Gerontology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Alligator Made To Inhale Helium, For Science! [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. V-22 Osprey Aircraft: Assessments Needed to Address Operational and Cost Concerns to Define Future Investments (No. GAO-09-692T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Xiao, S., 2012. Effects of adsorbates on the electronic properties of graphene (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B., Silver-Greenberg, J., Drucker, J., 2017. Regulators Review German Bank At the Center of Trump’s Finances. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Armitage, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Armitage, 2013; Liu and Duncan, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Duncan, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Niessing et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Gerontology
AbbreviationExp. Gerontol.
ISSN (print)0531-5565
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology

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