How to format your references using the Experimental Gerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Gerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Katsnelson, A., 2015. Microbiome: The puzzle in a bee’s gut. Nature 521, S56.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thybo, H., Nielsen, C.A., 2009. Magma-compensated crustal thinning in continental rift zones. Nature 457, 873–876.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrew, T.L., Tsai, H.-Y., Menon, R., 2009. Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning. Science 324, 917–921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gao, L., Song, C., Gao, Z., Barabási, A.-L., Bagrow, J.P., Wang, D., 2014. Quantifying information flow during emergencies. Sci. Rep. 4, 3997.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnett, A.H., Grice, J., 2011. New Mechanisms in Glucose Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Focosi, D. (Ed.), 2016. Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, Resistance to Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapeutics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Arias-Santiago, S., Buendía-Eisman, A., Gutiérrez-Salmerón, M.T., Serrano-Ortega, S., 2012. Male androgenetic alopecia, in: Preedy, V.R. (Ed.), Handbook of Hair in Health and Disease, Human Health Handbooks No. 1. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, pp. 98–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Gerontology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Cannibal Supernova Eats Companion Star [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Agriculture ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information (No. IMTEC-90-62FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelayo, A.M., 2008. A case study on the development of team -based leadership structure in the hospital industry (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2002. Russian Novelist Scoffs at Post-Soviet Leaders. New York Times 114.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Katsnelson, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Katsnelson, 2015; Thybo and Nielsen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thybo and Nielsen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Gerontology
AbbreviationExp. Gerontol.
ISSN (print)0531-5565
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology

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