How to format your references using the Experimental Gerontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Gerontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDonald, R.A., 2014. Animal health: How to control bovine tuberculosis. Nature 511, 158–159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barbraud, C., Weimerskirch, H., 2001. Emperor penguins and climate change. Nature 411, 183–186.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blomster, J.P., Neff, H., Glascock, M.D., 2005. Olmec pottery production and export in ancient Mexico determined through elemental analysis. Science 307, 1068–1072.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Backus, E.H.G., Eichler, A., Kleyn, A.W., Bonn, M., 2005. Real-time observation of molecular motion on a surface. Science 310, 1790–1793.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cortada, J.W., 2014. The Essential Manager. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ellis-Monaghan, J.A., 2013. Graphs on Surfaces: Dualities, Polynomials, and Knots, SpringerBriefs in Mathematics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Resch, K., 2005. Cytokines, in: Nijkamp, F.P., Parnham, M.J. (Eds.), Principles of Immunopharmacology. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp. 45–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Gerontology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Ice Ages Don’t All End Alike [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Space Program Safety: Funding for NASA’s Safety Organizations Should Be Centralized (No. NSIAD-90-187). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolakoski, M., 2013. The appeal to be heard and the trope of listening in classic film and African American literature (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. She Beat Her Stresses. Now Can She Beat Venus? New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McDonald, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Barbraud and Weimerskirch, 2001; McDonald, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barbraud and Weimerskirch, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Backus et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Gerontology
AbbreviationExp. Gerontol.
ISSN (print)0531-5565
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology

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