How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smith C. Drug target identification: a question of biology. Nature. 2004 Mar 11;428(6979):225–231.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Merrell DS, Falkow S. Frontal and stealth attack strategies in microbial pathogenesis. Nature. 2004 Jul 8;430(6996):250–256.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ishishita S, Matsuda Y, Kitada K. Genetic evidence suggests that Spata22 is required for the maintenance of Rad51 foci in mammalian meiosis. Sci. Rep. 2014 Aug 21;4:6148.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Gougoux F, Lepore F, Lassonde M, et al. Neuropsychology: pitch discrimination in the early blind. Nature. 2004 Jul 15;430(6997):309.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Chen N. Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Loeb PA, Wolff MPH, editors. Nonstandard Analysis for the Working Mathematician. 2nd ed. 2015. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
McCarthy EF. Infections of Bones. In: McCarthy EF, Zhang PJ, editors. Essentials in Bone and Soft-Tissue Pathology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 55–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Watch The Antares Rocket Launch Tonight Live [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Oct 27 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/millions-will-be-able-view-tonight-s-antares-rocket-launch/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Cost to Operate After Assembly is Uncertain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mahiko J. Community Connections: Supporting Rural Youth with Disabilities Who Are Work-Bound. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Baker L. A Community Comes to a University. New York Times. 2006 May 7;RE11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Trauma
ISSN (print)0890-5339
ISSN (online)1531-2291
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

Other styles