How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Lichtenthaler SF. Cell biology. Sheddase gets guidance. Science. 2012 Jan 13;335(6065):179–180.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ratcliff WC, Denison RF. Microbiology. Alternative actions for antibiotics. Science. 2011 Apr 29;332(6029):547–548.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Borgia G, Coyle BJ, Keagy J. Comment on “Illusions promote mating success in great bowerbirds.” Science. 2012 Jul 20;337(6092):292; author reply 292.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Huang Y, Street-Perrott FA, Metcalfe SE, et al. Climate change as the dominant control on glacial-interglacial variations in C3 and C4 plant abundance. Science. 2001 Aug 31;293(5535):1647–1651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Richards A, Dafydd H. Key Notes on Plastic Surgery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Hart E, Timmis J, Mitchell P, et al., editors. Bio-Inspired Models of Networks, Information, and Computing Systems: 6th International ICST Conference, BIONETICS 2011, York, UK, December 5-6, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Greaves M, Ford AM. Chromosome Translocations, Cancer Initiation and Clonal Evolution. In: Rowley JD, Le Beau MM, Rabbitts TH, editors. Chromosomal Translocations and Genome Rearrangements in Cancer. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 53–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Gene Linked To Age Perception Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 May 1 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/gene-linked-youthful-appearance-discovered/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Passenger Rail Security: Federal Strategy and Enhanced Coordination Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Falcone JN. For Pets’ Sake: Is There a Need for Dog Safety Community Education? 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B. Wine, Cheese and Polyamory. New York Times. 2017 Mar 21;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Trauma
ISSN (print)0890-5339
ISSN (online)1531-2291
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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