How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freeman MR. Specification and morphogenesis of astrocytes. Science. 2010;330:774–778.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scholes RJ, Biggs R. A biodiversity intactness index. Nature. 2005;434:45–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim C, Facchetti A, Marks TJ. Polymer gate dielectric surface viscoelasticity modulates pentacene transistor performance. Science. 2007;318:76–80.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Greenwood RC, Franchi IA, Jambon A, et al. Widespread magma oceans on asteroidal bodies in the early Solar System. Nature. 2005;435:916–918.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lu K. Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2014.
An edited book
Chakraborty S. Computational Musicology in Hindustani Music. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Nogueira S, Ruichek Y, Gechter F, et al. An Artificial-Vision Based Environment Perception System. In: Abut H, Hansen JHL, Takeda K, eds. Advances for In-Vehicle and Mobile Systems: Challenges for International Standards. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007:35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma.

Blog post
Fang J. Single Shot Could Replace Spaying And Neutering [IFLScience]. October 7, 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Flexible Service Offerings in the Commercial Mobile Radio Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cordova M. The impact of a teacher training program on student engagement. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. The Gossip Just Won’t Stop. New York Times. 2013:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Trauma
ISSN (print)0890-5339
ISSN (online)1531-2291
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles