How to format your references using the Chemistry and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemistry and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Gauntlett J. Physics. Brane new worlds. Nature. 2000;404:28–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Lynch M, Conery JS. The origins of genome complexity. Science. 2003;302:1401–1404.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Buxbaum AR, Wu B, Singer RH. Single β-actin mRNA detection in neurons reveals a mechanism for regulating its translatability. Science. 2014;343:419–422.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
Ma W, Qin L-X, Liu F-T, et al. Ubiquinone-quantum dot bioconjugates for in vitro and intracellular complex I sensing. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:1537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Ramsinghani M. The Business of Venture Capital. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Dörner R, Göbel S, Effelsberg W, et al., editors. Serious Games: Foundations, Concepts and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Micciancio D, Regev O. Lattice-based Cryptography. In: Bernstein DJ, Buchmann J, Dahmen E, editors. Post-Quantum Cryptography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 147–191.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemistry and Ecology.

Blog post
[1]
Hale T. Watch This Homemade Electromagnetic Gun Vaporize A Piggybank [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/amateurs-create-super-powerful-diy-railgun/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ August 2000 Interim Spending Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000. Report No.: GAO-01-91. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Lansdon J. A policy analysis of California’s three strikes law of 1994 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. 2017 Mar 2;C27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChemistry and Ecology
AbbreviationChem. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0275-7540
ISSN (online)1029-0370
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science
Ecology

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