How to format your references using the Chemistry and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemistry and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazar MA. How obesity causes diabetes: not a tall tale. Science. 2005;307:373–375.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lavier LL, Manatschal G. A mechanism to thin the continental lithosphere at magma-poor margins. Nature. 2006;440:324–328.
A journal article with 3 authors
McLeod P, Reed N, Dienes Z. Psychophysics: how fielders arrive in time to catch the ball. Nature. 2003;426:244–245.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Quezada JC, Saussine G, Breul P, et al. Predicting the settlement of coarse granular materials under vertical loading. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.G. Upton G. Categorical Data Analysis by Example. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Jain R, Lee L, editors. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Infrastructure Applications: Focusing on Innovation, Technology Implementation and Sustainability. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Franco G, Manca V, Giagulli C, et al. DNA Recombination by XPCR. In: Carbone A, Pierce NA, editors. DNA Computing: 11th International Workshop on DNA Computing, DNA11, London, ON, Canada, June 6-9, 2005 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemistry and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Dinosaur Crater Drilling Project Declared A “Fantastic Success” [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. High-Quality Senior Marine Corps Officers: How Many Stay Beyond 20 Years of Service? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984. Report No.: PEMD-85-1. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton LM. Factors Affecting Quality Discourse and Knowledge Construction in an Online University Course [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L, Neroulias N. School Districts Gird For Bad-News Budgets. New York Times. 2009 Mar 22;LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChemistry and Ecology
AbbreviationChem. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0275-7540
ISSN (online)1029-0370
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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