How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Translation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Translation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kovacs JA. Biochemistry. How iron activates O2. Science 2003;299:1024–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hutt D, Balch WE. Cell Biology. The proteome in balance. Science 2010;329:766–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue P, Qin H, Tang B. Trapping photons on the line: controllable dynamics of a quantum walk. Sci Rep 2014;4:4825.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wei W, Tao Y, Lv W, Su F-Y, Ke L, Li J, et al. Unusual high oxygen reduction performance in all-carbon electrocatalysts. Sci Rep 2014;4:6289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chernick MR. The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Markopoulos P, Martens J-B, Malins J, Coninx K, Liapis A, editors. Collaboration in Creative Design: Methods and Tools. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Rana S, Zöller M. The Functional Importance of Tetraspanins in Exosomes. In: Zhang H-G, editor. Emerging Concepts of Tumor Exosome–Mediated Cell-Cell Communication, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 69–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Translation.

Blog post
Fang J. DNA From Ice Age “Llama on Steroids” Fossil Rewrites Camel History. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need for Better Management of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim EH. A personal narrative of a Korean immigrant to the United States: A quest for finding a niche. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. A Mets Pitcher’s Call-Up From Class AA Is a Surprise to Him. New York Times 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Translation
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Translat.
ISSN (print)2214-031X

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