How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Translation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Translation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brock SL. Materials science. Filling a void. Science 2007;317:460–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sajish M, Schimmel P. A human tRNA synthetase is a potent PARP1-activating effector target for resveratrol. Nature 2015;519:370–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim J, Ashenhurst JA, Movassaghi M. Total synthesis of (+)-11,11’-dideoxyverticillin A. Science 2009;324:238–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nicastro F, Mathur S, Elvis M, Drake J, Fang T, Fruscione A, et al. The mass of the missing baryons in the X-ray forest of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. Nature 2005;433:495–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McMaster MC. LC/MS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Max MD. Exploration and Production of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate: Critical Factors for Commercialization. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Stigler J, Lundqvist M, Cedervall T, Dawson K, Lynch I. Protein Interactions with Microballoons: Consequences for Biocompatibility and Application as Contrast Agents. In: Paradossi G, Pellegretti P, Trucco A, editors. Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Targeting and Processing Methods for Theranostics, Milano: Springer; 2010, p. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Translation.

Blog post
Andrew E. Even The Pope Gets It – Carbon Markets Won’t Fix The Climate. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Online Access to Legislative Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bermudez D. The effects of Hispanic parent-adolescent biculturalism disparity on male adolescent delinquency. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Bond Issue Is Approved for Sachem Schools. New York Times 2008:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Translation
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Translat.
ISSN (print)2214-031X

Other styles