How to format your references using the Wear citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wear. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Heyde, Materials Science. Structure and motion of a 2D glass, Science. 342 (2013) 201–202.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Bercovici, Y. Ricard, Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance, Nature. 508 (2014) 513–516.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.Y. Son, J.-K. Lee, Y.C. Kang, Fabrication and electrochemical performance of 0.6Li2MnO3-0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 microspheres by two-step spray-drying process, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5752.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Mitra, N. Mukherjee, S. Das, P. Das, C.K. Panda, J. Chakrabarti, Anomalous altered expressions of downstream gene-targets in TP53-miRNA pathways in head and neck cancer, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Wood, M. Anderson, F. Analytics, The Commercial Real Estate Tsunami, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
S. Wismath, A. Wolff, eds., Graph Drawing: 21st International Symposium, GD 2013, Bordeaux, France, September 23-25, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Albors-Garrigos, J.C.R. Carrasco, New Learning Paradigms: Open Course Versus Traditional Strategies. The Current Paradox of Learning and Developing Creative Ideas, in: B. White, I. King, P. Tsang (Eds.), Social Media Tools and Platforms in Learning Environments, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 53–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wear.

Blog post
E. Andrew, How Does The Immune System Learn?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial and Operating Conditions Threaten Long-Term Viability, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Hambarsoomian, Classification of Placental Chorionic Surface Vasculature Network Features Using Machine Learning Techniques, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Beyond the Finish Line, Where Should Fans Gather?, New York Times. (2000) 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWear
ISSN (print)0043-1648
ScopeMechanics of Materials
Materials Chemistry
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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