How to format your references using the Wear citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wear. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.R. Forrest, The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic, Nature. 428 (2004) 911–918.
A journal article with 2 authors
Z. Cheng, T.M. Menees, RNA branching and debranching in the yeast retrovirus-like element Ty1, Science. 303 (2004) 240–243.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Akil, M.E. Martone, D.C. Van Essen, Challenges and opportunities in mining neuroscience data, Science. 331 (2011) 708–712.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.R. Lambais, D.E. Crowley, J.C. Cury, R.C. Büll, R.R. Rodrigues, Bacterial diversity in tree canopies of the Atlantic forest, Science. 312 (2006) 1917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Morana, Sustainable Supply Chain Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
L. Floridi, M. Taddeo, eds., The Ethics of Information Warfare, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A.F. Budd, J.S. Klaus, Early Evolution of the Montastraea “annularis” Species Complex (Anthozoa: Scleractinia): Evidence from the Mio-Pliocene of the Dominican Republic, in: R.H. Nehm, A.F. Budd (Eds.), Evolutionary Stasis and Change in the Dominican Republic Neogene, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008: pp. 85–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wear.

Blog post
T. Hale, A Brain-Eating Amoeba Has Infected A Person In The US, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: TSA Has Strengthened Efforts to Plan for the Optimal Deployment of Checked Baggage Screening Systems, but Funding Uncertainties Remain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.D. Hoefer, A David against Goliath: The American veterans committee’s challenge to the American legion in the 1950s, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Eligon, J. Martin, Kansas Republican Survives Tight Congressional Race to Win House Seat, New York Times. (2017) A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWear
ISSN (print)0043-1648
ScopeMechanics of Materials
Materials Chemistry
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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