How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Noonan J. Journal club. An evolutionary geneticist looks at how small genetic changes can have big evolutionary effects. Nature 2010;465:13.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Liu C-Y, Bard AJ. Pressure-induced insulator conductor transition in a photoconducting organic liquid-crystal film. Nature 2002;418:162–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Preis T, Moat HS, Stanley HE. Quantifying trading behavior in financial markets using Google Trends. Sci Rep 2013;3:1684.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Fichot CG, Kaiser K, Hooker SB, Amon RMW, Babin M, Bélanger S, et al. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean. Sci Rep 2013;3:1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Randall JF. Designing Indoor Solar Products. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
[1]
Roberts AR. Gli interventi sulla crisi: Una guida pratica. Milano: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Liddle SW, Embley DW. A Common Core for Active Conceptual Modeling for Learning from Surprises. In: Chen PP, Wong LY, editors. Active Conceptual Modeling of Learning: Next Generation Learning-Base System Development, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Science.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Animation Shows 550 Million Years Of Human Evolution In Seconds. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Kennedy Space Center: Decision on Photographic Requirements Appears Justified. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Reller TL. Exploring differences in teacher attitudes and instructional strategies between traditional and block schedule high schools: A comparison of two small schools. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Barron J. In the Age of Reality TV, a Best-Selling Author Calls In Real-Life Heroes. New York Times 2017:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Science
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Sci.
ISSN (print)0949-2658
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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