How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Tepass U. Developmental biology: Polarize to elongate. Nature 2014;515:499–501.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Mellars P, French JC. Tenfold population increase in Western Europe at the Neandertal-to-modern human transition. Science 2011;333:623–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Jimenez-Sanchez G, Childs B, Valle D. Human disease genes. Nature 2001;409:853–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Kuang C, Li S, Liu W, Hao X, Gu Z, Wang Y, et al. Breaking the diffraction barrier using fluorescence emission difference microscopy. Sci Rep 2013;3:1441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Smith CL. Basic Process Measurements. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
[1]
Hunt WF. Plant Selection for Bioretention Systems and Stormwater Treatment Practices. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Maris M. Regulatory Challenges Related to The Licensing of a New Nuclear Power Plant. In: Apikyan SA, Diamond DJ, editors. Nuclear Power and Energy Security, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010, p. 19–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Science.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. Dung Beetles Evolved With Dinosaurs. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/dung-beetles-evolved-dinosaurs/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. The Federal Wind Energy Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Owen AK. Preventive health behaviors: A look at the correlation between regular physical activity and routine cervical cancer screening. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Slotnik DE. Zvonko Busic, 67, Croatian Hijacker. New York Times 2013:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Science
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Sci.
ISSN (print)0949-2658
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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