How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Barry C. Infectious disease. More than just bugs in spit. Science 2015;348:633–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Kubatko LS, Pearl DK. Evolution. Seeing the trees in your terrace. Science 2011;333:411–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Brantley JN, Wiggins KM, Bielawski CW. Unclicking the click: mechanically facilitated 1,3-dipolar cycloreversions. Science 2011;333:1606–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Yang Y, Sugimoto JD, Halloran ME, Basta NE, Chao DL, Matrajt L, et al. The transmissibility and control of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Science 2009;326:729–33.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Grinyer A. Palliative and End of Life Care for Children and Young People. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Mazzone L, Vitiello B, editors. Psychiatric Symptoms and Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Wiesinger H. 5 Arginine, Citrulline, and Ornithine. In: Lajtha A, Oja SS, Schousboe A, Saransaari P, editors. Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Amino Acids and Peptides in the Nervous System, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007, p. 99–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Science.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. Fast Radio Bursts Definitely Come From Outer Space. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/space/fast-radio-bursts-definitely-come-from-outer-space/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Native Hawaiian Education Act: Greater Oversight Would Increase Accountability and Enable Targeting of Funds to Areas with Greatest Need. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Beasley CA. Investigations of redox-labeled silica and gold nanoparticles in solution and as films on electrodes. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Johnson G. Unearthing Prehistoric Tumors, and Debate. New York Times 2010:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Science
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Sci.
ISSN (print)0949-2658
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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