How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walter MJ. Earth science. A shear pathway to the core. Nature 2000;403:839–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kristensen P, Bjerkedal T. Explaining the relation between birth order and intelligence. Science 2007;316:1717.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foley S, Tiepolo M, Vannucci R. Growth of early continental crust controlled by melting of amphibolite in subduction zones. Nature 2002;417:837–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chu L, Li L, Su J, Tu F, Liu N, Gao Y. A general method for preparing anatase TiO₂ treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires for fiber dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci Rep 2014;4:4420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bi J. Sensory Discrimination Tests and Measurements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Adams JC. The Fortran 2003 Handbook: The Complete Syntax, Features and Procedures. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Ignaciuk P, Bartoszewicz A. Flow Control in Continuous-Time Systems. In: Bartoszewicz A, editor. Congestion Control in Data Transmission Networks: Sliding Mode and Other Designs, London: Springer; 2013, p. 61–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Science.

Blog post
Andrews R. Physicists Forge Impossible Molecule That Chemists Failed To Make. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Leadership and Partnerships Result in Limited Rollover Disruptions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stroud M. Solar desalination in the southwest United States: A thermoeconomic analysis utilizing the sun to desalt water in high irradiance regions. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices, 5 to 4, Overturn 3 Texas Death Sentences. New York Times 2007:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Science
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Sci.
ISSN (print)0949-2658
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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