How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vilenkin A. Astronomy. The vacuum energy crisis. Science 2006;312:1148–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lecuit T, Le Goff L. Orchestrating size and shape during morphogenesis. Nature 2007;450:189–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Regenauer-Lieb K, Yuen DA, Branlund J. The initiation of subduction: criticality by addition of water? Science 2001;294:578–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lagoudakis KG, Ostatnický T, Kavokin AV, Rubo YG, André R, Deveaud-Plédran B. Observation of half-quantum vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate. Science 2009;326:974–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burgess M. Analytical Network and System Administration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Roth W-M. Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural-Historical Perspective. vol. 6. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Barcelo J, Bellalta B, Oliver M, Banchs A. Collision-Free Operation in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks. In: Sacchi C, Bellalta B, Vinel A, Schlegel C, Granelli F, Zhang Y, editors. Multiple Access Communications: 4th International Workshop, MACOM 2011, Trento, Italy, September 12-13, 2011. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Science.

Blog post
Davis J. New Test Determines How Fast You’re Aging. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: VA Actions Needed to Implement Critical Reforms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McConnell KF. Inventing pluralistic education: Compulsory schooling as technique of democratic deliberation. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker L. A Housing Project That Embraces A City and Nature. New York Times 2010:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Science
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Sci.
ISSN (print)0949-2658
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles