How to format your references using the Journal of Plant Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Plant Ecology (JPE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fields BD (2001) Cosmology. A census of cosmic matter. Science 294:529–530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rai AK, Cook-Deegan R (2013) Genetics. Moving beyond ‘isolated’ gene patents. Science 341:137–138.
A journal article with 3 authors
Egholm DL, Knudsen MF, Sandiford M (2013) Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers. Nature 498:475–478.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sun Y, Lei HX, Cui H, Yang GW, Li BJ, Wang CX (2014) Si-doped ceramic Al4O4C nanowires: full-color emission and optical waveguide behavior. Sci Rep 4:6833.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prutchi D, Norris M (2004) Design and Development of Medical Electronic Instrumentation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
O’Connor RV, Umay Akkaya M, Kemaneci K, Yilmaz M, Poth A, Messnarz R (eds) (2015) Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 22nd European Conference, EuroSPI 2015, Ankara, Turkey, September 30 -- October 2, 2015. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Keeble AH, Maté MJ, Kleanthous C (2005) HNH Endonucleases. In M Belfort, DW Wood, BL Stoddard, and V Derbyshire (eds). Homing Endonucleases and Inteins. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Plant Ecology.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) IFLScience. (30 October 2018, date last accessed).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) National Laboratories: Are Their R&D Activities Related to Commercial Product Development? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Levy MR (2009) Visual perception and Gestalt grouping in the landscape: Are Gestalt grouping prinicples reliable indicators of visual preference? Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hiked TFP, Contributed to This Article:, Beedy J, et al. (1985) BLISTERS AND BLISS ON A FROSTY BEACH. New York Times 11LI28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fields 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Fields 2001; Rai and Cook-Deegan 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rai and Cook-Deegan 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Plant Ecology
ISSN (print)1752-9921
ISSN (online)1752-993X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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