How to format your references using the Journal of Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Witkowski JA (2002) Mad hatters at the DNA tea party. Nature 415:473–474
A journal article with 2 authors
De Francesco R, Migliaccio G (2005) Challenges and successes in developing new therapies for hepatitis C. Nature 436:953–960
A journal article with 3 authors
Rieseberg LH, Wood TE, Baack EJ (2006) The nature of plant species. Nature 440:524–527
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schroeder BC, Waldegger S, Fehr S, et al (2000) A constitutively open potassium channel formed by KCNQ1 and KCNE3. Nature 403:196–199

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klepinger LL (2006) Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Tejchman J (2010) Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Steel-Fibrous Concrete. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Schättler H, Ledzewicz U (2015) Optimal Control for Problems with a Quadratic Cost Functional on the Therapeutic Agents. In: Ledzewicz U (ed) Optimal Control for Mathematical Models of Cancer Therapies: An Application of Geometric Methods. Springer, New York, NY, pp 141–170

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ornithology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) This Tiny Camera Could Take Real Time Images From Inside Your Arteries. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Information Technology: Federal Agencies Need to Strengthen Investment Board Oversight of Poorly Planned and Performing Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obidos C (2015) Attitudes toward and knowledge of advance directives: A quantitative study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L (2012) John Blair, Beto Sutter. New York Times ST18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Witkowski 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Witkowski 2002; De Francesco and Migliaccio 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (De Francesco and Migliaccio 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Schroeder et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ornithology
AbbreviationJ. Ornithol.
ISSN (print)2193-7192
ISSN (online)2193-7206

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