How to format your references using the Journal of Ornithology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ornithology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heine V V (2000) Crystal structure. As weird as they come. Nature 403:836–837
A journal article with 2 authors
Bezanilla F, Perozo E (2002) Structural biology. Force and voltage sensors in one structure. Science 298:1562–1563
A journal article with 3 authors
Hacker J, Hentschel U, Dobrindt U (2003) Prokaryotic chromosomes and disease. Science 301:790–793
A journal article with 5 or more authors
McDonald GR, Hudson AL, Dunn SMJ, et al (2008) Bioactive contaminants leach from disposable laboratory plasticware. Science 322:917

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xiu L (2012) Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond the Phase-Locked Loop. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gan L (2014) Data you need to know about China: Research Report of China Household Finance Survey•2012. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Khan O, Kundu S (2011) Microvisor: A Runtime Architecture for Thermal Management in Chip Multiprocessors. In: Stenström P (ed) Transactions on High-Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers IV. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 84–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ornithology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Case For Nuclear Power – Despite The Risks. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Opportunities for Improving the Management of DOD Computer Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marlatt ES (2013) Effects of accelerated instruction on achievement gains of underprepared Catholic high school freshmen. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2014) Whatever Floats Your Soap. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heine 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Heine 2000; Bezanilla and Perozo 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bezanilla and Perozo 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (McDonald et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ornithology
AbbreviationJ. Ornithol.
ISSN (print)2193-7192
ISSN (online)2193-7206

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