How to format your references using the Ethnography and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnography and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krause, Richard M. 2005. “Obituary: Maclyn McCarty (1911-2005).” Nature 433 (7024): 372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kabeche, Lilian, and Duane A. Compton. 2013. “Cyclin A Regulates Kinetochore Microtubules to Promote Faithful Chromosome Segregation.” Nature 502 (7469): 110–113.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohman, David J., David Bickford, and Navjot S. Sodhi. 2007. “Environment. The Burning Issue.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5823): 376.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Long, Stephen B., Xiao Tao, Ernest B. Campbell, and Roderick MacKinnon. 2007. “Atomic Structure of a Voltage-Dependent K+ Channel in a Lipid Membrane-like Environment.” Nature 450 (7168): 376–382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Camarillo, Gonzalo, and Miguel A. García-Martín. 2005. The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pyne, Saumyadipta, B. L. S. Prakasa Rao, and S. B. Rao, eds. 2016. Big Data Analytics: Methods and Applications. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramanathan, Vignesh, Bangpeng Yao, and Li Fei-Fei. 2014. “Social Role Recognition for Human Event Understanding.” In Human-Centered Social Media Analytics, edited by Yun Fu, 75–93. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnography and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Has Tesla Cracked The Grid Energy Storage Problem?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Transportation Security: TSA Could Strengthen Oversight of Allegations of Employee Misconduct. GAO-13-756T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trantham, Laurel Clayton. 2012. “PSA Surveillance Following Radical Prostatectomy: What We Know and Why It Matters.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, John, and Kay Nolan. 2016. “In Milwaukee, Worries Over Eliminating Rule That Police Must Live in City.” New York Times, August 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Krause 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Krause 2005; Kabeche and Compton 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kabeche and Compton 2013)
  • Three authors: (Lohman, Bickford, and Sodhi 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Long et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnography and Education
ISSN (print)1745-7823
ISSN (online)1745-7831
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

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