How to format your references using the Ethnography and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnography and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Proctor, R. N. 2000. “Expert Witnesses Take the Stand.” Nature 407 (6800): 15–16.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harper, George R., Jr, and David W. Pfennig. 2008. “Selection Overrides Gene Flow to Break down Maladaptive Mimicry.” Nature 451 (7182): 1103–1106.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davison, P. A., C. N. Hunter, and P. Horton. 2002. “Overexpression of Beta-Carotene Hydroxylase Enhances Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.” Nature 418 (6894): 203–206.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Teder, Priit, R. William Vandivier, Dianhua Jiang, Jiurong Liang, Lauren Cohn, Ellen Puré, Peter M. Henson, and Paul W. Noble. 2002. “Resolution of Lung Inflammation by CD44.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5565): 155–158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf, Toralf. 2006. Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Luo, Albert C. J., and Jian-Qiao Sun, eds. 2012. Complex Systems: Fractionality, Time-Delay and Synchronization. Vol. 0. Nonlinear Physical Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ledermann, Jonathan A., and Fharat A. Raja. 2011. “Mucinous Cancers: Ovary.” In Rare and Uncommon Gynecological Cancers: A Clinical Guide, edited by Nicholas Reed, John Alan Green, David M. Gershenson, Nadeem Siddiqui, and Rachel Connor, 67–73. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnography and Education.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “World’s First Fluorescent Frog Discovered In The Amazon.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1970. Selected Contracting and Consulting Activities of the Office of Education. B-164031(1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhu, Mengyuan. 2017. “Numerical Investigation of Encapsulation Technology in Polymer Flooding Processes.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, Linda. 2006. “A Neighborhood Rises From the Waterfront.” New York Times, June 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Proctor 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Proctor 2000; Harper and Pfennig 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Harper and Pfennig 2008)
  • Three authors: (Davison, Hunter, and Horton 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Teder et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnography and Education
ISSN (print)1745-7823
ISSN (online)1745-7831
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

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