How to format your references using the Ethnography and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnography and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dantzer, Ben. 2015. “Ecology. Mothers Shape Ecological Communities.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6224): 822–823.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sazanov, Leonid A., and Philip Hinchliffe. 2006. “Structure of the Hydrophilic Domain of Respiratory Complex I from Thermus Thermophilus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5766): 1430–1436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giovannoni, Stephen, Ben Temperton, and Yanlin Zhao. 2013. “Giovannoni et al. Reply.” Nature 499 (7459): E4-5.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hensel, Kai O., Veronika Boland, Jan Postberg, Matthias Zilbauer, Robert Heuschkel, Silvia Vogel, Daniel Gödde, Stefan Wirth, and Andreas C. Jenke. 2014. “Differential Expression of Mucosal Trefoil Factors and Mucins in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7343.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koepsell, David. 2015. Who Owns You? Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Schmidt, Gerhard, Huseyin Abut, Kazuya Takeda, and John H. L. Hansen, eds. 2014. Smart Mobile In-Vehicle Systems: Next Generation Advancements. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahlswede, Rudolf. 2016. “Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems.” In Hiding Data - Selected Topics: Rudolf Ahlswede’s Lectures on Information Theory 3, edited by Alexander Ahlswede, Ingo Althöfer, Christian Deppe, and Ulrich Tamm, 225–336. Foundations in Signal Processing, Communications and Networking. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnography and Education.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Chimpanzees That Travel Long Distances Are More Adept Tool Users.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Comments on CRS Direct Loan Report. HRD-93-20R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kidder, Elizabeth O. 2014. “Self-Administered HPV Testing as a Cervical Cancer Screening Option: Exploring the Perspectives of Hispanic and Arab Women in the United States.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2009. “On Tap: Beer and Conversation.” New York Times, September 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dantzer 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dantzer 2015; Sazanov and Hinchliffe 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sazanov and Hinchliffe 2006)
  • Three authors: (Giovannoni, Temperton, and Zhao 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hensel et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnography and Education
ISSN (print)1745-7823
ISSN (online)1745-7831
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

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