How to format your references using the Ethnography and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnography and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gong, Peng. 2012. “China’s New Leaders Must Keep Science in Focus.” Nature 491 (7423): 161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scaffidi, Paola, and Tom Misteli. 2006. “Lamin A-Dependent Nuclear Defects in Human Aging.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5776): 1059–1063.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Ching-Wei, Shuk-Man Ka, and Ann Chen. 2014. “Robust Image Registration of Biological Microscopic Images.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 6050.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Novelle, Marta G., María J. Vázquez, Kátia D. Martinello, Miguel A. Sanchez-Garrido, Manuel Tena-Sempere, and Carlos Diéguez. 2014. “Neonatal Events, Such as Androgenization and Postnatal Overfeeding, Modify the Response to Ghrelin.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4855.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baban, Tharwat M. 2016. Shallow Foundations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Decker, Bart De, Jana Dittmann, Christian Kraetzer, and Claus Vielhauer, eds. 2013. Communications and Multimedia Security: 14th IFIP TC 6/TC 11 International Conference, CMS 2013, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-26, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 8099. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Johnston-Parsons, Marilyn, and Michael F. Watts. 2015. “Introduction.” In International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research, edited by Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nicholas C. Burbules, and Morwenna Griffiths, 81–86. Springer International Handbooks of Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnography and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Premature Birth Linked With Lower Wealth: How Education Could Help Bridge The Gap.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Air Traffic Control: Issues Presented by Proposal to Create a Government Corporation. T-RCED-95-114. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Castillo-Garrison, Estella M. 2012. “Asilomar Leadership Skills Seminar: The Career Preparation, Advancement, and Enhancement of Women in California Community College Leadership.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, John. 2017. “New Ways to Woo Jaded Consumers.” New York Times, June 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gong 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gong 2012; Scaffidi and Misteli 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scaffidi and Misteli 2006)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Ka, and Chen 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Novelle et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnography and Education
ISSN (print)1745-7823
ISSN (online)1745-7831
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

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