How to format your references using the Ethnography and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnography and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruse, Michael. 2003. “Perceptions in Science. Is Evolution a Secular Religion?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5612): 1523–1524.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prindle, Arthur, and Jeff Hasty. 2010. “Biochemistry. Stochastic Emergence of Groupthink.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5981): 987–988.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berné, Olivier, Núria Marcelino, and José Cernicharo. 2010. “Waves on the Surface of the Orion Molecular Cloud.” Nature 466 (7309): 947–949.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yin, Qingzhu, S. B. Jacobsen, K. Yamashita, J. Blichert-Toft, P. Télouk, and F. Albarède. 2002. “A Short Timescale for Terrestrial Planet Formation from Hf-W Chronometry of Meteorites.” Nature 418 (6901): 949–952.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carter, Keith B. 2014. Actionable Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Amr, Tarek. 2016. Practical D3.Js. Edited by Rayna Stamboliyska. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Delgado, Gabriela, Rosario Morales, Jose Luis Mendez, and Alejandro Cravioto. 2011. “The Re-Emergence of Cholera in the Americas.” In Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects on Cholera, edited by T. Ramamurthy and S. K. Bhattacharya, 79–95. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnography and Education.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “How Leatherback Sea Turtles Keep Their Muscles Warm In Frigid Waters.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Improve Key Project Management Practices for Its Modernization Efforts. GAO-13-455. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barkis, Bruce. 2017. “How Do Highly Engaged Employees and Managers Find Meaning in Their Work?” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nordland, Rod. 2017. “With Daring Cellphone Videos, Saudi Women Are Challenging Male Control.” New York Times, April 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruse 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ruse 2003; Prindle and Hasty 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prindle and Hasty 2010)
  • Three authors: (Berné, Marcelino, and Cernicharo 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yin et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnography and Education
ISSN (print)1745-7823
ISSN (online)1745-7831
Cultural Studies
Gender Studies

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