How to format your references using the Journal of Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman T (2004) Drug discovery: the leading edge. Nature 430:109–115
A journal article with 2 authors
Smetacek V, Zingone A (2013) Green and golden seaweed tides on the rise. Nature 504:84–88
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghuman AS, van den Honert RN, Martin A (2013) Interregional neural synchrony has similar dynamics during spontaneous and stimulus-driven states. Sci Rep 3:1481
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Feng S, Chen H, Liu Y, et al (2013) A novel vitreous substitute of using a foldable capsular vitreous body injected with polyvinylalcohol hydrogel. Sci Rep 3:1838

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beach GJ (2013) The U.S. Technology Skills Gap. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Besold TR, Schorlemmer M, Smaill A (eds) (2015) Computational Creativity Research: Towards Creative Machines. Atlantis Press, Paris
A chapter in an edited book
Trucchia F, Romei J (2010) Principles and Rules. In: Romei J, Lowman M, Andres C, et al. (eds) Pro PHP Refactoring. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 47–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geosciences.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) CERN Just Had A Particle Bonanza With Five New Discoveries. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center: Cost Growth and Other Factors Affect Closure and Privatization. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Iniguez A (2013) The Latino immigrant families and involvement with child welfare system: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2000) Veggies vs. a Courthouse: Worries and Reassurance. New York Times 149

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman 2004; Smetacek and Zingone 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smetacek and Zingone 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Feng et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geosciences
ISSN (print)1802-6222
ISSN (online)1803-1943

Other styles