How to format your references using the Journal of Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons A (2012) Archaeology. Mediterranean island voyages. Science 338:895–897
A journal article with 2 authors
Merritt S, Clauset A (2013) Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions. Sci Rep 3:3067
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins FS, Morgan M, Patrinos A (2003) The Human Genome Project: lessons from large-scale biology. Science 300:286–290
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Henshilwood C, d’Errico F, Vanhaeren M, et al (2004) Middle Stone Age shell beads from South Africa. Science 304:404

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van der Heide P (2014) Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Schwenk A, Polonyi J (eds) (2012) Renormalization Group and Effective Field Theory Approaches to Many-Body Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Greiner A, Fincke B (2009) The Role of Real Wage Rigidity and Unemployment. In: Fincke B (ed) Public Debt and Economic Growth. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 111–127

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geosciences.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Not Everything Gives You Cancer, But Eating Too Much Processed Meat Certainly Can. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Space Station: Plans to Expand Research Community Do Not Match Available Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker EC (2010) Perceptions of youth with diabetes and their parents/guardians about youth eating habits and nutrition-related difficulties. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Krauss C, Schwartz J (2016) Views on State Dept. Pick Hinge on Oil Industry. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simmons 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Simmons 2012; Merritt and Clauset 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Merritt and Clauset 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Henshilwood et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geosciences
ISSN (print)1802-6222
ISSN (online)1803-1943

Other styles