How to format your references using the Journal of Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petherick A. Development: Mother’s milk: A rich opportunity. Nature. 2010;468(7327):S5-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson DL, Johnson SAS. Cell biology. RNA metabolism and oncogenesis. Science. 2008;320(5875):461-462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baksh MM, Jaros M, Groves JT. Detection of molecular interactions at membrane surfaces through colloid phase transitions. Nature. 2004;427(6970):139-141.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Britton-Davidian J, Catalan J, da Graça Ramalhinho M, et al. Rapid chromosomal evolution in island mice. Nature. 2000;403(6766):158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
CCPS. Safe Design and Operation of Process Vents and Emission Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Olausson H, Wessberg J, Morrison I, McGlone F, eds. Affective Touch and the Neurophysiology of CT Afferents. Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Boxer D. Discourse Issues in Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Educating the Community. In: Hult FM, ed. Directions and Prospects for Educational Linguistics. Educational Linguistics. Springer Netherlands; 2010:49-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optometry.

Blog post
Luntz S. New Metal-Air Battery Drives Car 1800Km Without Recharge. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Query Concerning FY 1985 Authorization Levels for Department of Education Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith GS. The relationship between legislative implementations and educator readiness in inclusive educational environments. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fuller T, Turkewitz J, Alcindor Y, Dougherty C, Kovaleski SF. A ‘Ghost Ship’ All but Unseen, Until 36 Died. New York Times. December 22, 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optometry
AbbreviationJ. Optom.
ISSN (print)1888-4296

Other styles