How to format your references using the Journal of Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Eggleston CM. Geochemistry. Toward new uses for hematite. Science. 2008;320(5873):184-185.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Hellman A, Chess A. Gene body-specific methylation on the active X chromosome. Science. 2007;315(5815):1141-1143.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Pozzi F, Di Matteo T, Aste T. Spread of risk across financial markets: better to invest in the peripheries. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1665.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Glotch TD, Lucey PG, Bandfield JL, et al. Highly silicic compositions on the Moon. Science. 2010;329(5998):1510-1513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Rogers EF Jr. Aquinas and the Supreme Court. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Fogel E. CGAL Arrangements and Their Applications: A Step-by-Step Guide. Vol 7. (Halperin D, Wein R, eds.). Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Münstedt H, Schwarzl FR. Structure and States of Polymers. In: Schwarzl FR, ed. Deformation and Flow of Polymeric Materials. Springer; 2014:77-120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optometry.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Scrunchies Save Wildlife From Cats. IFLScience. Published March 23, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/scrunchies-saving-native-wildlife-cats/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Questions Designed To Aid Managers and Auditors in Assessing the ADP Planning Process. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wuebbels PJ. Effectiveness of Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum on Middle School Reading Comprehension and Preparation for Common Core State Standards. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Protess B, Stevenson A. For Using Jobs to Entice China’s Elite, Chase Agrees to Pay a $264 Million Penalty. New York Times. November 17, 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optometry
AbbreviationJ. Optom.
ISSN (print)1888-4296
ScopeOptometry

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