How to format your references using the Journal of Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wolpert L. The well-spring. Nature. 2000;405(6789):887.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sekiya S, Suzuki A. Direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to hepatocyte-like cells by defined factors. Nature. 2011;475(7356):390-393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cremer S, Sledge MF, Heinze J. Chemical mimicry: male ants disguised by the queen’s bouquet. Nature. 2002;419(6910):897.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fleischer JW, Segev M, Efremidis NK, Christodoulides DN. Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices. Nature. 2003;422(6928):147-150.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samuels S. Reading the American Novel 1780-1865. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Löffelhardt W, ed. Endosymbiosis. Vienna: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Beierle C. Systems and Implementations for Solving Reasoning Problems in Conditional Logics. In: Gyssens M, Simari G, eds. Foundations of Information and Knowledge Systems: 9th International Symposium, FoIKS 2016, Linz, Austria, March 7-11, 2016. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:83-94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optometry.

Blog post
Carpineti A. SpaceX Successfully Lands Second Rocket On Barge. IFLScience. Published May 6, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Market Research: Better Documentation Needed to Inform Future Procurements at Selected Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magda B. Increasing efficacy of emergency departments through systems analysis of enterprise architecture: Mitigating the impact of technological change. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. How United Pulled Out Of Its Public Nose Dive. New York Times. July 27, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optometry
AbbreviationJ. Optom.
ISSN (print)1888-4296

Other styles