How to format your references using the Journal of Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Schrope M. Climatology. Trouble in the greenhouse. Nature. 2000;407(6800):10-12.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Anand P, Chandra N. Characterizing the pocketome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and application in rationalizing polypharmacological target selection. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6356.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Joo W, Hippenmeyer S, Luo L. Neurodevelopment. Dendrite morphogenesis depends on relative levels of NT-3/TrkC signaling. Science. 2014;346(6209):626-629.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kim KH, Späh A, Pathak H, et al. Maxima in the thermodynamic response and correlation functions of deeply supercooled water. Science. 2017;358(6370):1589-1593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Böhm M. Symmetrien in Festkörpern. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Nguyen NT, Le MT, Świątek J, eds. Intelligent Information and Database Systems: Second International Conference, ACIIDS, Hue City, Vietnam, March 24-26, 2010. Proceedings, Part II. Vol 5991. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Cortina S, Mayer N, Renault A, Barafort B. Towards a Process Assessment Model for Management System Standards. In: Mitasiunas A, Rout T, O’Connor RV, Dorling A, eds. Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination: 14th International Conference, SPICE 2014, Vilnius, Lithuania, November 4-6, 2014, Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:36-47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optometry.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Birds Camouflage Nests Using Matching Colors. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/birds-camouflage-nests-using-matching-colors/. Published October 6, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Shared Resources Project: Evaluation Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Karas LL. Information systems and technology leaders in merger and acquisition integrations. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Lee L. A New Turn on Old Pots. New York Times. May 22, 2008:F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optometry
AbbreviationJ. Optom.
ISSN (print)1888-4296
ScopeOptometry

Other styles