How to format your references using the Archives of Disease in Childhood citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Disease in Childhood. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klug DD. Thermodynamics. Glassy Water. Science 2001;294:2305–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dillin A, Kelly JW. Medicine. The yin-yang of sirtuins. Science 2007;317:461–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu C, Shang X-D, Huang RX. Horizontal eddy energy flux in the world oceans diagnosed from altimetry data. Sci Rep 2014;4:5316.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bénazet J-D, Bischofberger M, Tiecke E, et al. A self-regulatory system of interlinked signaling feedback loops controls mouse limb patterning. Science 2009;323:1050–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dubé J, Legros D. Spatial Econometrics Using Microdata. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2014.
An edited book
Rudolph KL, editor. Telomeres and Telomerase in Ageing, Disease, and Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms of Adult Stem Cell Ageing. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Malaval P, Bénaroya C, Aflalo J. Market Segmentation and Positioning. In: Bénaroya C, Aflalo J, eds. Aerospace Marketing Management: A Handbook for the Entire Value Chain. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2014. 123–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Blog post
Andrews R. ‘Maleness Gene’ Could Be Key To Destroying Malaria Mosquitos. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of NASA’s Solicitation for the Leasing of Office Space in the Houston, Texas, Area. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clendening RJ. A structured methodology for unifying functional analysis with systems analysis to enhance system behavior knowledge. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Chief Justice Advocates Higher Pay for Judiciary. New York Times. 2007;:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Disease in Childhood
AbbreviationArch. Dis. Child.
ISSN (print)0003-9888
ISSN (online)1468-2044
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles