How to format your references using the Archives of Disease in Childhood citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Disease in Childhood. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Becker S. Rhubarb pie and science. Science 2014;345:1534.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liston C, Kagan J. Brain development: memory enhancement in early childhood. Nature 2002;419:896.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ding WW, Murray F, Stuart TE. Gender differences in patenting in the academic life sciences. Science 2006;313:665–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Veen T, Borge T, Griffith SC, et al. Hybridization and adaptive mate choice in flycatchers. Nature 2001;411:45–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parashar RK. Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Synthesis. West Sussex, United Kingdom: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2008.
An edited book
Ivanov I, van Sinderen M, Shishkov B, editors. Cloud Computing and Services Science. New York, NY: : Springer 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Bretos I, Calzada ML. Approaches Towards the Minimisation of Toxicity in Chemical Solution Deposition Processes of Lead-Based Ferroelectric Thin Films. In: Ricote J, ed. Multifunctional Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Materials: Processing and Properties. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2011. 145–216.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Blog post
Andrew D. At What Age Is It Easiest To Learn A Second Language? IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FTS2001: Transition Challenges Jeopardize Program Goals. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sheldon A. The impact of power restoration and narcissism on aggression. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times. 2015;:C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Disease in Childhood
AbbreviationArch. Dis. Child.
ISSN (print)0003-9888
ISSN (online)1468-2044
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles