How to format your references using the Archives of Disease in Childhood citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Disease in Childhood. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E. Stem cells: the hard copy. Nature 2007;446:485–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gibson MC, Perrimon N. Extrusion and death of DPP/BMP-compromised epithelial cells in the developing Drosophila wing. Science 2005;307:1785–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Panday V, Tiest WMB, Kappers AML. Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception. Sci Rep 2014;4:3856.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Juan L, Tong H-L, Zhang P, et al. Identification and characterization of novel serum microRNA candidates from deep sequencing in cervical cancer patients. Sci Rep 2014;4:6277.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stratton JA. Electromagnetic Theory. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2015.
An edited book
Jikeli G, Allouche-Benayoun J, editors. Perceptions of the Holocaust in Europe and Muslim Communities: Sources, Comparisons and Educational Challenges. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Chou CL, Bell J, Chou CM, et al. Remediation of Interpersonal and Communication Skills. In: Kalet A, Chou CL, eds. Remediation in Medical Education: A Mid-Course Correction. New York, NY: : Springer 2014. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Blog post
Taub B. Tarantulas Are Right-Handed, Study Suggests. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Rulemaking: Agencies’ Use of Information Technology to Facilitate Public Participation. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson WB. High school athletics and the “whole adolescent”: A case study of three urban high schools. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herskovic L. Who’s That Cat? New York Times. 2017;:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Disease in Childhood
AbbreviationArch. Dis. Child.
ISSN (print)0003-9888
ISSN (online)1468-2044
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles