How to format your references using the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Enserink M. 2000. DUTCH SCIENCE: On a Slippery Slope to Mediocrity? Science (New York, N.Y.) 289: 2033.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richie TL, Saul A. 2002. Progress and challenges for malaria vaccines. Nature 415: 694–701.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ungless MA, Magill PJ, Bolam JP. 2004. Uniform inhibition of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area by aversive stimuli. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303: 2040–2042.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jedicke R, Nesvorný D, Whiteley R, Ivezić Z Z, Jurić M. 2004. An age-colour relationship for main-belt S-complex asteroids. Nature 429: 275–277.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas A. 2012. Case Histories in Vibration Analysis and Metal Fatigue for the Practicing Engineer. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Austin B. 2016. Bacterial Fish Pathogens: Disease of Farmed and Wild Fish. 6th ed. 2016. Austin DA (ed). Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Steiger M, Charola AE, Sterflinger K. 2011. Weathering and Deterioration. In Stone in Architecture: Properties, Durability, Siegesmund S and Snethlage R (eds). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg; 227–316.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2015. NASA Turns Black Hole Telescope Onto the Sun To Capture X-rays From Microflares. IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. [Comments on DOD Data Center Consolidation Plan]. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam NN. 2013. The effect of racial disparities and adult supervision in Human Papillomavirus knowledge among female adolescents, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. 2014. In Suit, Ex-Employee Says Drug-Test Firm Mishandled Result. New York Times 26th April: D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Enserink, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Enserink, 2000; Richie & Saul, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richie & Saul, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Jedicke et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Osteoarchaeology
AbbreviationInt. J. Osteoarchaeol.
ISSN (print)1047-482X
ISSN (online)1099-1212

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