How to format your references using the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons R. 2001. Sense and sensibility. Nature 411: 243.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moret Y, Schmid-Hempel P. 2001. Immune defence in bumble-bee offspring. Nature 414: 506.
A journal article with 3 authors
Obata Y, Kono T, Hatada I. 2002. Gene silencing: maturation of mouse fetal germ cells in vitro. Nature 418: 497.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
McMurray RJ, Wann AKT, Thompson CL, Connelly JT, Knight MM. 2013. Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells. Scientific reports 3: 3545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horváth T. 2006. Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, England.
An edited book
Gabrys B, Howlett RJ, Jain LC (eds). 2006. Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 10th International Conference, KES 2006, Bournemouth, UK, October 9-11, 2006. Proceedings, Part II. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Horváth L, Rudas IJ. 2015. Intelligent Content for Product Definition in RFLP Structure. In Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 13th International Conference, SoMeT 2014, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 22-24, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, Fujita H and Selamat A (eds). Springer International Publishing: Cham; 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Earliest Stars 150 Million Years Older Than Previously Believed. IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Health Information Technology: Early Efforts Initiated but Comprehensive Privacy Approach Needed for National Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cooper EA. 2009. Missouri elementary teacher certification programs and the education provided on how boys and girls learn differently, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
French A. 2014. The Last, Disposable Action Hero. New York Times 28th February: MM32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simmons, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Moret & Schmid-Hempel, 2001; Simmons, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moret & Schmid-Hempel, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (McMurray et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Osteoarchaeology
AbbreviationInt. J. Osteoarchaeol.
ISSN (print)1047-482X
ISSN (online)1099-1212

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