How to format your references using the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie T. 2010. Tunable polymer multi-shape memory effect. Nature 464: 267–270.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xiang Y, Kobilka BK. 2003. Myocyte adrenoceptor signaling pathways. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 1530–1532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rustagi D, Engel S, Kosfeld M. 2010. Conditional cooperation and costly monitoring explain success in forest commons management. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330: 961–965.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim Y et al. 2018. A bioinspired flexible organic artificial afferent nerve. Science (New York, N.Y.) 360: 998–1003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yakushevich LV. 2005. Nonlinear Physics of DNA. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Cherry SR. 2006. PET: Physics, Instrumentation, and Scanners. Dahlbom M and Phelps ME (eds). Springer: New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Gao Y, Ma L, Wu X, Chen Z. 2006. From Keyframing to Motion Capture. In Human Interaction with Machines: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop held at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University, March 15–16, 2005, Hommel G and Huanye S (eds). Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht; 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. Royal ferns are “living fossils,” unchanged since the Jurassic. IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Business Process Reengineering Assessment Guide--Version 3. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quinn L. 2013. The poetics of soul: Mythic narrative as creative elegy, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B, Coscarelli J. 2017. It’s Adele vs. Beyoncé. New York Times 9th February: C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kuper, 2009; Trewavas, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xiang & Kobilka, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Shin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Osteoarchaeology
AbbreviationInt. J. Osteoarchaeol.
ISSN (print)1047-482X
ISSN (online)1099-1212

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