How to format your references using the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steed JW. 2002. Materials science. Molecular “ghosts.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298: 976–977.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thybo H, Nielsen CA. 2009. Magma-compensated crustal thinning in continental rift zones. Nature 457: 873–876.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tomioka K, Yoshimura M, Fukui T. 2012. A III-V nanowire channel on silicon for high-performance vertical transistors. Nature 488: 189–192.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Peng Y, Ellis BD, Wang X, Fettinger JC, Power PP. 2009. Reversible reactions of ethylene with distannynes under ambient conditions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 325: 1668–1670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ratliff TA. 2005. The Laboratory Quality Assurance System. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bilimoria KY, Minami CA, Mahvi DM (eds). 2015. Comparative Effectiveness in Surgical Oncology: Key Questions and How to Answer Them. Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Aloupis G, Bose PK, Collette S, Demaine ED, Demaine ML, Douïeb K, Dujmović V, Iacono J, Langerman S, Morin P. 2011. Common Unfoldings of Polyominoes and Polycubes. In Computational Geometry, Graphs and Applications: 9th International Conference, CGGA 2010, Dalian, China, November 3-6, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Akiyama J, Bo J, Kano M, and Tan X (eds). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg; 44–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology.

Blog post
Davis J. 2016. Bornean Orangutans Now Considered Critically Endangered. IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Small Business Innovation Research: SBA Should Work with Agencies to Improve the Data Available for Program Evaluation. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Minger L. 2017. Examining Education Leadership Communication Practices around Basic and Advanced Skill Sets: A Multiple Case Study, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard A, Kirkpatrick DD. 2017. 5 Arab Nations Put U.S. in Jam As They Move to Isolate Qatar. New York Times 5th June: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Steed, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Steed, 2002; Thybo & Nielsen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thybo & Nielsen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Peng et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Osteoarchaeology
AbbreviationInt. J. Osteoarchaeol.
ISSN (print)1047-482X
ISSN (online)1099-1212

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