How to format your references using the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young LJ. 2009. Being human: love: neuroscience reveals all. Nature 457: 148.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schraidt O, Marlovits TC. 2011. Three-dimensional model of Salmonella’s needle complex at subnanometer resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.) 331: 1192–1195.
A journal article with 3 authors
Munsky B, Neuert G, van Oudenaarden A. 2012. Using gene expression noise to understand gene regulation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 183–187.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Morisset S, Rouleau A, Ligneau X, Gbahou F, Tardivel-Lacombe J, Stark H, Schunack W, Ganellin CR, Schwartz JC, Arrang JM. 2000. High constitutive activity of native H3 receptors regulates histamine neurons in brain. Nature 408: 860–864.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fjeld RA, Eisenberg NA, Compton KL. 2007. Quantitative Environmental Risk Analysis for Human Health. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Negro RWD, Goldberg AI (eds). 2006. Ossigenoterapia domiciliare a lungo termine in Italia: Il valore aggiunto della telemedicina. Springer: Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramar K. 2012. Management of Sleep Disorders: CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure). In Introduction to Modern Sleep Technology, Chiang RP-Y and Kang S-C (jessy) (eds). Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht; 51–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Osteoarchaeology.

Blog post
Davis J. 2016. Countries Vote To End Ivory Trade, But Attempt To Boost Elephant Protection Is Defeated. IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Planned Use of Information Technology for the Space Station. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slaughter RA. 2017. Tradition and Progress: California Fire Technology Directors Beliefs and Values, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Haberman M. 2017. Trump Again Says Two Sides at Fault in Rally Violence. New York Times 15th August: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Young, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Schraidt & Marlovits, 2011; Young, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schraidt & Marlovits, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Morisset et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Osteoarchaeology
AbbreviationInt. J. Osteoarchaeol.
ISSN (print)1047-482X
ISSN (online)1099-1212

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