How to format your references using the Functional Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Functional Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seitzinger, S. (2010). A sustainable planet needs scientists to think ahead. Nature, 468(7324), 601.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2009). Behavior. Surprising emotions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5911), 215–216.
A journal article with 3 authors
Singh, S. K., Yamashita, A., & Gouaux, E. (2007). Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters. Nature, 448(7156), 952–956.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cheng, H.-C., Skehan, B. M., Campellone, K. G., Leong, J. M., & Rosen, M. K. (2008). Structural mechanism of WASP activation by the enterohaemorrhagic E. coli effector EspF(U). Nature, 454(7207), 1009–1013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews, G. G. (2002). Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Rubin, A. (2014). Mathematical Biophysics. (G. Riznichenko, Ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeng, X., Chauhan, C., & Hou, S. X. (2013). Stem Cells in the Drosophila Digestive System. In G. Hime & H. Abud (Eds.), Transcriptional and Translational Regulation of Stem Cells (pp. 63–78). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Functional Ecology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, July 10). Earth-Like Planets Could be Present in Every Planetary System. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Responses of Federal Agencies and Airports We Surveyed About Access Security Improvements (No. GAO-01-1069R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crosby, W. O. (2013). ATI v. Colorado: How the Commerce Clause Provides Guidance at the Confluence of Energy, Environmental, and Constitutional Law (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, March 24). Art Is Long, Nails Are Longer. New York Times, p. 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seitzinger, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Seitzinger, 2010; Smith & Mackie, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith & Mackie, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Singh, Yamashita, & Gouaux, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Cheng, Skehan, Campellone, Leong, & Rosen, 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFunctional Ecology
AbbreviationFunct. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0269-8463
ISSN (online)1365-2435
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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