How to format your references using the Journal of Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muller-Landau H C 2014 Ecology: plant diversity rooted in pathogens Nature 506 44–5
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson M I and Wilson R J 2002 A topographically forced asymmetry in the martian circulation and climate Nature 416 298–301
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang Q, He K and Huo H 2012 Policy: Cleaning China’s air Nature 484 161–2
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zhang H, Chen X, Wang J, Guang W, Han W, Zhang H, Tan X and Gu Y 2014 EGR1 decreases the malignancy of human non-small cell lung carcinoma by regulating KRT18 expression Sci. Rep. 4 5416

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaynor G H 2014 Decisions (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Conti P S and Cham D K 2005 PET-CT: A Case-Based Approach (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Petrova K 2008 Mobile Payment: Towards a Customer-Centric Model Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2008 Workshops: WISE 2008 International Workshops, Auckland, New Zealand, September 1-4, 2008. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed S Hartmann, X Zhou and M Kirchberg (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 12–23

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 A Teacher Uses Star Trek For Difficult Conversations On Race And Gender IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994 Hispanics’ Schooling: Risk Factors for Dropping Out and Barriers to Resuming Their Education (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Errett R 2014 Acid Mine Drainage In The Big Muddy River Watershed Doctoral dissertation (Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B 2017 Saudi Arabia Detains Critics of Crown Prince New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optics
AbbreviationJ. Opt.
ISSN (print)2040-8978
ISSN (online)2040-8986
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles