How to format your references using the Journal of Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A 2011 Archaeology. Preserving history, one hill at a time Science 334 1623
A journal article with 2 authors
Park Y and Kuroda M I 2001 Epigenetic aspects of X-chromosome dosage compensation Science 293 1083–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Khudiyev T, Tobail O and Bayindir M 2014 Tailoring self-organized nanostructured morphologies in kilometer-long polymer fiber Sci. Rep. 4 4864
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Ramanathan V, Crutzen P J, Kiehl J T and Rosenfeld D 2001 Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle Science 294 2119–24

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides C A 2005 Combinatorial Methods in Discrete Distributions: Charalambides/Combinatorial (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Charikar M, Jansen K, Reingold O and Rolim J D P 2007 Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques: 10th International Workshop, APPROX 2007, and 11th International Workshop, RANDOM 2007, Princeton, NJ, USA, August 20-22, 2007. Proceedings vol 4627 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Hamidzadeh H R and Jazar R N 2010 Modal Analysis of Cylindrical Structures Vibrations of Thick Cylindrical Structures ed R N Jazar (Boston, MA: Springer US) pp 47–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optics.

Blog post
Hale T 2016 Washing Your Clothes Can Release Up To 700,000 Microplastic Particles Into The Environment IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992 Tax Systems Modernization: Update on Critical Issues Facing IRS (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Contreras A G 2009 A reproductive health program for the Latino adolescent community: A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J 2017 She Waited Years to Enter the Ring, but Life Forced Her to Step Out New York Times A24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optics
AbbreviationJ. Opt.
ISSN (print)2040-8978
ISSN (online)2040-8986
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles