How to format your references using the Journal of Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown T A 2010 Human evolution: Stranger from Siberia Nature
A journal article with 2 authors
Coffelt S B and de Visser K E 2014 Cancer: Inflammation lights the way to metastasis Nature 507 48–9
A journal article with 3 authors
Legramandi M A, Schepens B and Cavagna G A 2013 Running humans attain optimal elastic bounce in their teens Sci. Rep. 3 1310
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Pyzalla A, Camin B, Buslaps T, Di Michiel M, Kaminski H, Kottar A, Pernack A and Reimers W 2005 Simultaneous tomography and diffraction analysis of creep damage Science 308 92–5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Katsilambros N, Diakoumopoulou E, Ioannidis I, Liatis S, Makrilakis K, Tentolouris N and Tsapogas P 2006 Diabetes in Clinical Practice (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Wendt M D 2012 Protein-Protein Interactions vol 8 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Klepac G 2016 REFII Model and Fuzzy Logic as a Tool for Image Classification Based on Image Example Hybrid Soft Computing for Image Segmentation ed S Bhattacharyya, P Dutta, S De and G Klepac (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 87–108

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optics.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2016 Why Do Galaxies Stop Forming Stars? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2015 Unmanned Aerial Systems: Status of Test Sites and International Developments (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster R L 2016 The Perceptions of Language Minority Parents Regarding Informed Consent in the Special Education Process Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J 2016 A Comedian’s Embroidered Life New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optics
AbbreviationJ. Opt.
ISSN (print)2040-8978
ISSN (online)2040-8986
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles