How to format your references using the Journal of Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Birnbaum M J 2008 Signal transduction. Sweet conundrum Science 319 1348–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Jørgensen B B and D’Hondt S 2006 Ecology. A starving majority deep beneath the seafloor Science 314 932–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Croxall J P, Trathan P N and Murphy E J 2002 Environmental change and Antarctic seabird populations Science 297 1510–4
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Bode M, Heide M, von Bergmann K, Ferriani P, Heinze S, Bihlmayer G, Kubetzka A, Pietzsch O, Blügel S and Wiesendanger R 2007 Chiral magnetic order at surfaces driven by inversion asymmetry Nature 447 190–3

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgrossi L and Zhang T 2012 Vehicle Safety Communications (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Peruzzini M and Gonsalvi L 2011 Phosphorus Compounds: Advanced Tools in Catalysis and Material Sciences vol 37 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Kulich M, Krajník T, Přeučil L and Duckett T 2016 To Explore or to Exploit? Learning Humans’ Behaviour to Maximize Interactions with Them Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems: Third International Workshop, MESAS 2016, Rome, Italy, June 15-16, 2016, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed J Hodicky (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 48–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Why Some People Have Trouble Telling Left From Right (And Why It’s So Important) IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1999 Year 2000 Computing Challenge: FAA Continues to Make Important Strides, But Vulnerabilities Remain (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrett C 2010 Racial congruence and its effects on social integration and school involvement: A multi-level model Doctoral dissertation (College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg E 2016 Louise Rennison, 64, Young-Adult Author New York Times D8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optics
AbbreviationJ. Opt.
ISSN (print)2040-8978
ISSN (online)2040-8986
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles