How to format your references using the Journal of Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baruch J 2014 Practical science has a global reach and appeal Nature 507 141
A journal article with 2 authors
Hill A and Cooke G 2014 Medicine. Hepatitis C can be cured globally, but at what cost? Science 345 141–2
A journal article with 3 authors
Oppo D W, McManus J F and Cullen J L 2003 Palaeo-oceanography: Deepwater variability in the Holocene epoch Nature 422 277
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Song W, Wei Q, Liu W, Liu T, Yi J, Sheibani N, Fawzi A A, Linsenmeier R A, Jiao S and Zhang H F 2014 A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography Sci. Rep. 4 6525

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Petrucelli J R 2013 Detecting Fraud in Organizations (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Arndt N 2012 Metals and Society: An Introduction to Economic Geology vol 2, ed C Ganino (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Sanz R, Bermejo J, López I and Gómez J 2008 A Real-Time Agent System Perspective of Meaning and Sapience Toward Artificial Sapience: Principles and Methods for Wise Systems ed R V Mayorga and L I Perlovsky (London: Springer) pp 61–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optics.

Blog post
Fang J 2014 Guard Crabs Defend Coral Reefs from Predatory Sea Star Army IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1983 GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 2 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrews A 2013 Yoga as mental health treatment for cancer survivors: A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J 2016 Latin, Country, Reggaeton: Great Range in Mets’ Playlists New York Times SP1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optics
AbbreviationJ. Opt.
ISSN (print)2040-8978
ISSN (online)2040-8986
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles