How to format your references using the Journal of Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo E 2003 The birth of biotechnology Nature 421 456–7
A journal article with 2 authors
Catalan G and Scott J F 2007 Magnetoelectrics: is CdCr2S4 a multiferroic relaxor? Nature 448 E4-5; discussion E5-6
A journal article with 3 authors
Saalmann Y B, Pigarev I N and Vidyasagar T R 2007 Neural mechanisms of visual attention: how top-down feedback highlights relevant locations Science 316 1612–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Choi T, Lee S, Choi Y J, Kiryukhin V and Cheong S-W 2009 Switchable ferroelectric diode and photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3 Science 324 63–6

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips J J, Trotter W D and Phillips P P 2015 Maximizing the Value of Consulting (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Prat J 2008 Next-Generation FTTH Passive Optical Networks: Research Towards Unlimited Bandwidth Access (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Qureshi H and Verma A 2013 It Is Just Not Cricket Match-Fixing in International Sports: Existing Processes, Law Enforcement, and Prevention Strategies ed M R Haberfeld and D Sheehan (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 69–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optics.

Blog post
Evans K 2017 Germany Bans Meat At Official Functions In Step Towards Offsetting Carbon Footprint IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1999 Airport Financing: Annual Funding As Much As $3 Billion Less Than Planned Development (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katukuri J 2012 Relationship Extraction and Link Discovery from Biomedical Literature Doctoral dissertation ( Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey G 2009 For Rodriguez, It’s a No-Brainer: Just Play New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optics
AbbreviationJ. Opt.
ISSN (print)2040-8978
ISSN (online)2040-8986
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles