How to format your references using the Geoscience Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seager, S.: Exoplanet habitability, Science, 340(6132), 577–581, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Longo, V. D. and Finch, C. E.: Evolutionary medicine: from dwarf model systems to healthy centenarians?, Science, 299(5611), 1342–1346, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pan, Z. W., Dai, Z. R. and Wang, Z. L.: Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides, Science, 291(5510), 1947–1949, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Liu, J., Liu, H., Zhang, T., Ren, X., Nadolny, C., Dong, X., Huang, L., Yuan, K., Tian, W. and Jia, Y.: Serum Helicobacter pylori NapA antibody as a potential biomarker for gastric cancer, Sci. Rep., 4, 4143, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hendrick, J.: Law and Ethics in Children’s Nursing, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK., 2010.
An edited book
Boukas, E. K. and Malhamé, R. P., Eds.: Analysis, Control and Optimization of Complex Dynamic Systems, Springer US, Boston, MA., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Keith, M. and Schnicariol, M.: Object-Relational Mapping, in Pro JPA 2: Mastering the JavaTM Persistence API, edited by M. Schnicariol, pp. 69–106, Apress, Berkeley, CA., 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Communication.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Ice Ages Don’t All End Alike, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Passenger Rail Security: Federal Strategy and Enhanced Coordination Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sherman, C. P.: The effect of head and heart on municipal employee retention, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ., 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B.: Cowboys Have It All (Including, Somehow, a Losing Record), New York Times, 9th October, B13, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seager, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Longo and Finch, 2003; Seager, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Longo and Finch, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Communication
ISSN (print)2569-7102
ISSN (online)2569-7110

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