How to format your references using the Geoscience Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D.: Spiralling costs dog comet mission, Nature, 423, 372, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lillard, A. and Else-Quest, N.: The early years. Evaluating Montessori education, Science, 313, 1893–1894, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, J., Lu, H., and Huang, L.: Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.), Sci. Rep., 4, 6703, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Nemani, R. R., Keeling, C. D., Hashimoto, H., Jolly, W. M., Piper, S. C., Tucker, C. J., Myneni, R. B., and Running, S. W.: Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999, Science, 300, 1560–1563, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mainardi, R. L.: Harnessing the Power of Continuous Auditing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Pitkethly, J.: Dualisability: Unary Algebras and Beyond, edited by: Davey, B., Springer US, Boston, MA, XII, 264 p. 38 illus pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Facucho-Oliveira, J., Kulkarni, T., Machado-Oliveira, G., and St. John, J. C.: From Pluripotency to Differentiation: The Role of mtDNA in Stem Cell Models of Mitochondrial Diseases, in: Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondria, Disease and Stem Cells, edited by: St. John, J. C., Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 87–118, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Communication.

Blog post
Deadly Viruses Are Wiping Out Spanish Amphibians:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center: Cost Growth and Other Factors Affect Closure and Privatization, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milner, M.: An evaluation of the influence of case method instruction on the reflective thinking of MSW students, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. and Mather, V.: To Avoid I.O.C. Cut, a Sport Changed, New York Times, 14th February, B13, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2003; Lillard and Else-Quest, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lillard and Else-Quest, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Nemani et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Communication
ISSN (print)2569-7102
ISSN (online)2569-7110

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