How to format your references using the IEEE Pulse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Pulse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Sohn, “Screening: Diagnostic dilemma,” Nature, vol. 528, no. 7582, pp. S120-2, Dec. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Heinberg and D. Fridley, “The end of cheap coal,” Nature, vol. 468, no. 7322, pp. 367–369, Nov. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Vokrouhlický, D. Nesvorný, and W. F. Bottke, “The vector alignments of asteroid spins by thermal torques,” Nature, vol. 425, no. 6954, pp. 147–151, Sep. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. H. Vaillancourt, E. Yeh, D. A. Vosburg, S. E. O’Connor, and C. T. Walsh, “Cryptic chlorination by a non-haem iron enzyme during cyclopropyl amino acid biosynthesis,” Nature, vol. 436, no. 7054, pp. 1191–1194, Aug. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Svensson, Schrägkabelbrücken. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2011.
An edited book
D. Lewis, G. Eysenbach, R. Kukafka, P. Z. Stavri, and H. B. Jimison, Eds., Consumer Health Informatics: Informing Consumers and Improving Health Care. in Health Informatics. New York, NY: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Dargahi, A. M. Rahmani, and S. Jabbehdari, “Data Gathering Based on Nodes’ Credit in Wireless Sensor Network,” in Advances in Communication and Networking: Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking, FGCN 2008, Sanya, Hainan Island, China, December 13-15, 2008. Revised Selected Papers, T.-H. Kim, L. T. Yang, J. H. Park, A. C.-C. Chang, T. Vasilakos, and S.-S. Yeo, Eds., in Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 55–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Pulse.

Blog post
J. Fang, “IBM Watson set to battle brain cancers,” IFLScience, Mar. 21, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Transportation Security: Transportation Worker Identification Credential: A Status Update,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-08-1151T, Sep. 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. O’Connell, “Escaping intersections,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. R. Oestreich, “Sibelius and His Slowly Imparted Secrets Revealed,” New York Times, p. C2, Sep. 06, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Pulse
AbbreviationIEEE Pulse
ISSN (print)2154-2287
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine

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