How to format your references using the IEEE Pulse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Pulse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Chu, “Cold atoms and quantum control,” Nature, vol. 416, no. 6877, pp. 206–210, Mar. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Fisher and R. Costanza, “Environmental policy: regional commitment to reducing emissions,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7066, pp. 301–302, Nov. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Miyagoshi, A. Kageyama, and T. Sato, “Zonal flow formation in the Earth’s core,” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7282, pp. 793–796, Feb. 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. T. Blewett et al., “Hollows on Mercury: MESSENGER evidence for geologically recent volatile-related activity,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6051, pp. 1856–1859, Sep. 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Choudhry, Fixed Income Securities and Derivatives Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
J. Li, Production Systems Engineering. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Liu and L. Chen, “Chaos in Spatial Attitude Motion of Spacecraft,” in Chaos in Attitude Dynamics of Spacecraft, L. Chen, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 99–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Pulse.

Blog post
T. Hale, “You Can Now Listen To A Song That Hasn’t Been Played For 1,000 Years,” IFLScience, Apr. 25, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Office of Thrift Supervision’s Efforts to Ensure Thrift Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-AIMD-98-102, Mar. 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Paulone, “Mergers and Acquisitions: Examining Managerial Strategy Connection to Post Transaction Accounting Measures,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Duerden, “Qatar’s World Cup Résumé: Zero Games; 2022 Host,” New York Times, p. SP3, Apr. 01, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Pulse
AbbreviationIEEE Pulse
ISSN (print)2154-2287
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine

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