How to format your references using the IEEE Pulse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Pulse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Williams, “Slowing the decline,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7310, pp. S13-4, Aug. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Veillette and D. Davidson, “Immunology: When lymphocytes run out of steam,” Nature, vol. 510, no. 7504, pp. 222–223, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Hansen, W. R. Turrell, and S. Østerhus, “Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6840, pp. 927–930, Jun. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Paukner, S. J. Suomi, E. Visalberghi, and P. F. Ferrari, “Capuchin monkeys display affiliation toward humans who imitate them,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5942, pp. 880–883, Aug. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Van Der Pijl, L. K. Solomon, and J. Lokitz, How To Design a Better Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
F. S. Taxman and A. Pattavina, Eds., Simulation Strategies to Reduce Recidivism: Risk Need Responsivity (RNR) Modeling for the Criminal Justice System. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Ren, L. Yin, and H. Li, “Science Popularization Studies in China,” in Science Communication in the World: Practices, Theories and Trends, B. Schiele, M. Claessens, and S. Shi, Eds., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 65–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Pulse.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Experts Call On WHO To Reconsider Global Cannabis Ban,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “FAA Budget: Key Issues in Facilities and Equipment and Operations Accounts Need Resolution,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED-91-63, Jun. 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Smith, “Analysis of hydraulic and financial operations of a recycled water system: A case study of the Orange County water district’s green acres project,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, “Firefighters Museum Plans to Expand Again,” New York Times, p. LI11, Mar. 09, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Pulse
AbbreviationIEEE Pulse
ISSN (print)2154-2287
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine

Other styles