How to format your references using the IEEE Pulse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Pulse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. J. Craddock Lee, “Unionization of teaching assistants,” Science, vol. 288, no. 5473, p. 1965c, Jun. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. O. Mudd and D. A. Kass, “Tackling heart failure in the twenty-first century,” Nature, vol. 451, no. 7181, pp. 919–928, Feb. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
V. Piras, M. Tomita, and K. Selvarajoo, “Transcriptome-wide variability in single embryonic development cells,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 7137, Nov. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. R. B. Davenport et al., “A new genus of African monkey, Rungwecebus: morphology, ecology, and molecular phylogenetics,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5778, pp. 1378–1381, Jun. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Wagner and E. Balog, Advanced Technical Analysis of ETFs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
A. Ducros, C. Favre, and J. Nicaise, Eds., Berkovich Spaces and Applications, vol. 2119. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P. K. Mishra, K. Singh, and S. Baruntar, “ID-Based Threshold Signcryption and Group Unsigncryption,” in Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security: International Conference, SNDS 2012, Trivandrum, India, October 11-12, 2012. Proceedings, S. M. Thampi, A. Y. Zomaya, T. Strufe, J. M. Alcaraz Calero, and T. Thomas, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Pulse.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Surprisingly, Bees Top The List Of Most Deadly Venomous Creatures In Australia,” IFLScience, Jan. 17, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Denver International Airport: Baggage Handling, Contracting, and Other Issues,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-95-241FS, Aug. 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. H. Selis, “Holding the center: How one Jewish day school negotiates differences in a pluralistic community,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “An Intersection Where ‘Oh, No!’ Meets ‘Watch Out!,’” New York Times, p. 146, May 05, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Pulse
AbbreviationIEEE Pulse
ISSN (print)2154-2287
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine

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