How to format your references using the Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Hohenheim T (2000) A leap of faith. Nature 407:949
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh DJ, Parker D (2013) Itinerant magnetism in doped semiconducting β-FeSi₂ and CrSi₂. Sci Rep 3:3517
A journal article with 3 authors
López CA, de Vries AH, Marrink SJ (2013) Computational microscopy of cyclodextrin mediated cholesterol extraction from lipid model membranes. Sci Rep 3:2071
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cusanovich DA, Reddington JP, Garfield DA, et al (2018) The cis-regulatory dynamics of embryonic development at single-cell resolution. Nature 555:538–542

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jawlik AA (2016) Statistics from A to Z: Confusing Concepts Clarified. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Yamanouchi K, Becker A, Li R, Chin SL (2009) Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Oka Y, Koshizuka S, Ishiwatari Y, Yamaji A (2010) Plant Dynamics and Control. In: Koshizuka S, Ishiwatari Y, Yamaji A (eds) Super Light Water Reactors and Super Fast Reactors: Supercritical-Pressure Light Water Cooled Reactors. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 241–267

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Best Medical Images Of The Year: A Mesmerising Nano-World Where Science Becomes Art. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Better Management Needed in Automating the Federal Judiciary. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nasrollahzadeh Y (2013) Support group for caregivers of older adults affected by dementia: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) Walmart Sues Puerto Rico, Claiming an Unfair and Onerous Tax Burden. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
AbbreviationJ. Ophthalmic Inflamm. Infect.
ISSN (online)1869-5760
ScopeInfectious Diseases

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