How to format your references using the Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Velev OD (2006) Materials science. Self-assembly of unusual nanoparticle crystals. Science 312:376–377
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman JS, Walter MA (2002) Biomedicine. Under pressure. Science 295:983–984
A journal article with 3 authors
Paraje G, Sadana R, Karam G (2005) Public health. Increasing international gaps in health-related publications. Science 308:959–960
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Latta C, Haupt F, Hanl M, et al (2011) Quantum quench of Kondo correlations in optical absorption. Nature 474:627–630

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sun B (2016) Multiphase Flow in Oil and Gas Well Drilling. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Canuto C (2015) Mathematical Analysis II, Second Edition. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Sachithanadam M, Joshi SC (2016) Microstructural Analysis. In: Joshi SC (ed) Silica Aerogel Composites: Novel Fabrication Methods. Springer, Singapore, pp 37–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Researchers Identify Three New Fossils as Ancient Human Ancestors. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Information Technology: Additional OMB and Agency Actions Needed to Ensure Portfolio Savings Are Realized and Effectively Tracked. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katavic I (2014) Corporate social responsibility and sustainable competitive advantage: A case study of the cement industry. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2016) Paralympics; Iranian Cyclist Dies After Crash at Rio Games. New York Times SP2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
AbbreviationJ. Ophthalmic Inflamm. Infect.
ISSN (online)1869-5760
ScopeInfectious Diseases

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