How to format your references using the Natural Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayer J-P (2007) All things being equal. Nature 447:352
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee BH, Amon A (2003) Role of Polo-like kinase CDC5 in programming meiosis I chromosome segregation. Science 300:482–486
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins FS, Wilder EL, Zerhouni E (2014) Funding transdisciplinary research. NIH Roadmap/Common Fund at 10 years. Science 345:274–276
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schwartz JJ, John BE, Cheadle MJ, et al (2005) Dating the growth of oceanic crust at a slow-spreading ridge. Science 310:654–657

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans AW (2008) Economics, Real Estate and the Supply of Land. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Yu L (2008) Bio-Inspired Credit Risk Analysis: Computational Intelligence with Support Vector Machines. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Gonzalez A (2011) Is There a Link Between Hispanics and First-Generation College Students? The Importance of Exposure to a College-Going Tradition. In: Leal DL, Trejo SJ (eds) Latinos and the Economy: Integration and Impact in Schools, Labor Markets, and Beyond. Springer, New York, NY, pp 95–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) What Happens When You Pour Molten Aluminum Into A Watermelon? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Granite Sentry. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters WC (2017) An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Critical Technology Developments and Technology Maturity. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2001) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Recovering The Kursk. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mayer 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lee and Amon 2003; Mayer 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Amon 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwartz et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Computing
AbbreviationNat. Comput.
ISSN (print)1567-7818
ISSN (online)1572-9796
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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