How to format your references using the Natural Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beckley C (2004) Biotech business Down Under. Nature 429:5–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Samet JM, Wipfli HL (2010) Globe still in grip of addiction. Nature 463:1020–1021
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao J, Benlekbir S, Rubinstein JL (2015) Electron cryomicroscopy observation of rotational states in a eukaryotic V-ATPase. Nature 521:241–245
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cui H, Su J, Wei J, et al (2014) Elevated O₃ enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa. Sci Rep 4:5350

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society (2013) Recommendations on Excavations EAB. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Wang L, Chen K, Ong YS (eds) (2005) Advances in Natural Computation: First International Conference, ICNC 2005, Changsha, China, August 27-29, 2005, Proceedings, Part III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Delling D, Wagner D (2007) Landmark-Based Routing in Dynamic Graphs. In: Demetrescu C (ed) Experimental Algorithms: 6th International Workshop, WEA 2007, Rome, Italy, June 6-8, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 52–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) DNA Analysis Confirms King Richard III’s Remains And Reveals Possible Infidelity In The Royal Family. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/dna-analysis-confirms-king-richard-iii-s-remains/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Emergency Management: Improved Federal Coordination Could Better Assist K-12 Schools Prepare for Emergencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer TH (2008) Removal of natural organic matter by anion exchange: Multiscale experimentation and mathematical modeling. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ruckelshaus WD, Reilly WK (2016) Why Obama Is Right on Clean Energy. New York Times A27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beckley 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Beckley 2004; Samet and Wipfli 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Samet and Wipfli 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Cui et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Computing
AbbreviationNat. Comput.
ISSN (print)1567-7818
ISSN (online)1572-9796
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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