How to format your references using the Natural Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson D (2002) Anil Agarwal (1947-2002). Nature 415:384
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradbury A, Plückthun A (2015) Reproducibility: Standardize antibodies used in research. Nature 518:27–29
A journal article with 3 authors
Girvetz EH, Jaeger JAG, Thorne JH (2007) Comment on “Roadless space of the conterminous United States.” Science 318:1240; author reply 1240
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gupta R, Kim JY, Espinal MA, et al (2001) Public health. Responding to market failures in tuberculosis control. Science 293:1049–1051

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Westermeier R (2004) Electrophoresis in Practice. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Sugano K, Yamamoto H, Kita H (eds) (2006) Double-Balloon Endoscopy: Theory and Practice. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Benirschke K, Burton GJ, Baergen RN (2012) Placental Types. In: Burton GJ, Baergen RN (eds) Pathology of the Human Placenta. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Computing.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Origami Robot Folds Itself, Then Just Crawls Away. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Screening Partnership Program: TSA Should Issue More Guidance to Airports and Monitor Private versus Federal Screener Performance. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wei C-S (2017) Towards Brain Decoding for Real-World Drowsiness Detection. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly K (2017) Edge or Liability? New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dickson 2002; Bradbury and Plückthun 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bradbury and Plückthun 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Gupta et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Computing
AbbreviationNat. Comput.
ISSN (print)1567-7818
ISSN (online)1572-9796
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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