How to format your references using the Natural Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Natural Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford H (2007) Minimum telomere length defined for healthy cells. Nature 449:515
A journal article with 2 authors
Li J, Timko MP (2009) Gene-for-gene resistance in Striga-cowpea associations. Science 325:1094
A journal article with 3 authors
Advani MJ, Rajagopalan M, Reddy PH (2014) Calmodulin-like protein from M. tuberculosis H37Rv is required during infection. Sci Rep 4:6861
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rohwer T, Hellmann S, Wiesenmayer M, et al (2011) Collapse of long-range charge order tracked by time-resolved photoemission at high momenta. Nature 471:490–493

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubrey SB (2010) The Profitable Hobby Farm. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kothari V (ed) (2015) Proceedings of the 1982 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Jørgensen SE (2007) Application of ecological engineering principles in landscape management. In: Mander Ü, Wiggering H, Helming K (eds) Multifunctional Land Use: Meeting Future Demands for Landscape Goods and Services. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 83–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Natural Computing.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Astronomers Released 3D Map Of The Milky Way’s Dust. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) ADP Budget: Department of the Army’s Information Technology Systems Obligations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Igualada MO (2015) The beliefs of advanced placement teachers regarding equity and access to advanced placement courses: A mixed-methods study. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) No 401(k)? California Will Step In for Workers. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ledford 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ledford 2007; Li and Timko 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Timko 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Rohwer et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleNatural Computing
AbbreviationNat. Comput.
ISSN (print)1567-7818
ISSN (online)1572-9796
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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