How to format your references using the Free Radical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Free Radical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferguson SM. MEDICINE. Membrane traffic en route to cancer. Science 2015;350:162–163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zucker I, Beery AK. Males still dominate animal studies. Nature 2010;465:690.
A journal article with 3 authors
Christeson GL, McIntosh KD, Karson JA. Inconsistent correlation of seismic layer 2a and lava layer thickness in oceanic crust. Nature 2007;445:418–421.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nemani RR, Keeling CD, Hashimoto H, et al. Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999. Science 2003;300:1560–1563.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lloret J, Shulman G, Love RM. Condition and Health Indicators of Exploited Marine Fishes. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Mori K, Sakuma I, Sato Y, et al. (Eds.). Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2013: 16th International Conference, Nagoya, Japan, September 22-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part III. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Hess A, Nussbaumer M, Hlavacs H, et al. Automatic Adaptation and Analysis of SIP Headers Using Decision Trees. In: Schulzrinne H, State R, Niccolini S, editors. Principles, Systems and Applications of IP Telecommunications. Services and Security for Next Generation Networks: Second International Conference, IPTComm 2008, Heidelberg, Germany, July 1-2, 2008. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 69–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Free Radical Research.

Blog post
Davis J. Many Endangered Species Doing Too Well For Their Own Good. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Accreditation: Activities of Seven Agencies That Accredit Proprietary Schools. 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sadr EI. To whisper in the king’s ear: Economists in Pahlavi and Islamic Iran. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Tebow, Hitting .220, Receives a Promotion. New York Times 2017;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFree Radical Research
AbbreviationFree Radic. Res.
ISSN (print)1071-5762
ISSN (online)1029-2470
General Medicine

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