How to format your references using the Free Radical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Free Radical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson BJ. Development. Wiring the brain with insulin. Science 2003;300:440–441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schiøtz J, Jacobsen KW. A maximum in the strength of nanocrystalline copper. Science 2003;301:1357–1359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lev M, Yehezkel O, Polat U. Uncovering foveal crowding? Sci Rep 2014;4:4067.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Metzger E, Imhof A, Patel D, et al. Phosphorylation of histone H3T6 by PKCbeta(I) controls demethylation at histone H3K4. Nature 2010;464:792–796.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henry-Labordère A. Virtual Roaming Systems for GSM, GPRS and UMTS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2009.
An edited book
Max MD. Exploration and Production of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate: Critical Factors for Commercialization. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Nigmatullin RR. New Noninvasive Methods for ‘Reading’ of Random Sequences and Their Applications in Nanotechnology. In: Baleanu D, Guvenc ZB, Machado JAT, editors. New Trends in Nanotechnology and Fractional Calculus Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Free Radical Research.

Blog post
Davis J. Why Do Light Touches Make You Itchy? IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Strategic Sourcing: Improved and Expanded Use Could Provide Procurement Savings for Federal Information Technology. 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Friedlander MB. Limited Sight Distance. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Candidate’s Record; The Matter of Trust: Clinton’s Big Burden. New York Times 1992;124.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFree Radical Research
AbbreviationFree Radic. Res.
ISSN (print)1071-5762
ISSN (online)1029-2470
General Medicine

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