How to format your references using the Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bailey, M. E. (2002). Planetary science. Where have all the comets gone? Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5576), 2151–2153.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman, R. B., & Huang, W. (2014). Collaboration: Strength in diversity. Nature, 513(7518), 305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, E., Pandey, N. B., & Popel, A. S. (2014). Lymphatic endothelial cells support tumor growth in breast cancer. Scientific reports, 4, 5853.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hong, Y., Stronach, B., Perrimon, N., Jan, L. Y., & Jan, Y. N. (2001). Drosophila Stardust interacts with Crumbs to control polarity of epithelia but not neuroblasts. Nature, 414(6864), 634–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coates, M., & Jenkins, B. (2010). Electrical Installation Calculations: For Compliance with BS 7671:2008. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Xie, H. (2012). Atomic Force Microscopy Based Nanorobotics: Modelling, Simulation, Setup Building and Experiments. (C. Onal, S. Régnier, & M. Sitti, Eds.) (Vol. 71). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cai, K., & Wonham, W. M. (2016). Case Study: Production Cell. In W. M. Wonham (Ed.), Supervisor Localization: A Top-Down Approach to Distributed Control of Discrete-Event Systems (pp. 103–126). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 12). More Than 1,000 New Exoplanets Discovered – But Still No Earth Twin. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Olympic Security: Better Planning Can Enhance U.S. Support to Future Olympic Games (No. GAO-06-753). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Serranilla, M. (2012). Env7p localizes to the vacuole membrane and plays a role in vacuolar protein processing (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, August 19). If Your Boyfriend Is Metrosexual. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bailey 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bailey 2002; Freeman and Huang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freeman and Huang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hong et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity
AbbreviationJ. Open Innov.
ISSN (online)2199-8531

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