How to format your references using the Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vedral, V. (2012). Physics. Moving beyond trust in quantum computing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6066), 294–295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Han, Y., & Grier, D. G. (2003). Fluid dynamics: Vortex rings in a constant electric field. Nature, 424(6946), 267–268.
A journal article with 3 authors
Artyukhin, A. B., Schroeder, F. C., & Avery, L. (2013). Density dependence in Caenorhabditis larval starvation. Scientific reports, 3, 2777.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yamasaki, M., Li, W., Johnson, D. J. D., & Huntington, J. A. (2008). Crystal structure of a stable dimer reveals the molecular basis of serpin polymerization. Nature, 455(7217), 1255–1258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sullivan, D. M. (2012). Quantum Mechanics for Electrical Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
McClean, S., Millard, P., El-Darzi, E., & Nugent, C. (Eds.). (2009). Intelligent Patient Management (Vol. 189). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jøsang, A., Ødegaard, M., & Oftedal, E. (2015). Cybersecurity Through Secure Software Development. In M. Bishop, N. Miloslavskaya, & M. Theocharidou (Eds.), Information Security Education Across the Curriculum: 9th IFIP WG 11.8 World Conference, WISE 9, Hamburg, Germany, May 26-28, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 53–63). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2017, January 9). Why Do We Get Allergies? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Mass Transit: Status of New Starts Program and Potential for Bus Rapid Transit Projects (No. GAO-02-840T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tan-atichat, T. P. (2008). Behavior of VNC in high-latency environments and techniques for improvement (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Soble, J. (2017, June 26). Airbag Crisis Sends Takata To Its Demise. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vedral 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Han and Grier 2003; Vedral 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Han and Grier 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamasaki et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity
AbbreviationJ. Open Innov.
ISSN (online)2199-8531

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