How to format your references using the Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCarrey, J. R. (2015). EPIGENETICS. The epigenome--a family affair. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6261), 634–635.
A journal article with 2 authors
Indriolo, E., & Goring, D. R. (2010). Plant science. Pollen gets more complex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6005), 767–768.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duivenvoorden, J. F., Svenning, J. C., & Wright, S. J. (2002). Ecology. Beta diversity in tropical forests. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5555), 636–637.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, W., Timonen, J. V. I., Carlson, A., Drotlef, D.-M., Zhang, C. T., Kolle, S., et al. (2018). Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography. Nature, 559(7712), 77–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ness, L. (2006). Securing Utility and Energy Infrastructures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Koumoto, K., & Mori, T. (Eds.). (2013). Thermoelectric Nanomaterials: Materials Design and Applications (Vol. 182). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiayias, A., & Zhou, H.-S. (2006). Concurrent Blind Signatures Without Random Oracles. In R. D. Prisco & M. Yung (Eds.), Security and Cryptography for Networks: 5th International Conference, SCN 2006, Maiori, Italy, September 6-8, 2006. Proceedings (pp. 49–62). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, November 6). How Did Mars Lose Its Habitable Climate? The Answer Is Blowing In The Solar Wind. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Secretary of the Senate Accountability as of March 31, 1977 (No. GGD-77-66). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolfenden, A. (2012). Factors predicting oncology care providers’ behavioral intention to adopt clinical decision support systems (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., & Walsh, M. W. (2012, April 1). Distressed Cities Weigh Bold Tactics In a New Fiscal Era. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCarrey 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Indriolo and Goring 2010; McCarrey 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Indriolo and Goring 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity
AbbreviationJ. Open Innov.
ISSN (online)2199-8531

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