How to format your references using the ACS Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACS Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D. Cause Is Not Everything in Mental Illness. Nature 2014, 511 (7511), 509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S. Electron Plasma Oscillations Upstream of the Solar Wind Termination Shock. Science 2005, 309 (5743), 2025–2027.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu, M.; Yu, X.; Ahlberg, P. E. A Primitive Sarcopterygian Fish with an Eyestalk. Nature 2001, 410 (6824), 81–84.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Uehlein, N.; Lovisolo, C.; Siefritz, F.; Kaldenhoff, R. The Tobacco Aquaporin NtAQP1 Is a Membrane CO2 Pore with Physiological Functions. Nature 2003, 425 (6959), 734–737.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wong, K. D. Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Varin, R. A. Nanomaterials for Solid State Hydrogen Storage; Czujko, T., Wronski, Z. S., Eds.; Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimcheva, T.; Kraptcheva, S. Lessons Learned and Good Practice in the Preparation of the National Implementation Plan (NIP) for the Management of Pops in the Republic of Bulgaria. In The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment; Mehmetli, E., Koumanova, B., Eds.; NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; pp 31–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACS Photonics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Deception Island – The Antarctic Volcano That Just Doesn’t Make Any Sense. IFLScience. (accessed 2018-10-30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes; AIMD-99-71R; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kunihiro, A. G. The Relationship between Dietary Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid Intake and Colorectal Cancer. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. Russian Legislators Vote to Condemn Anti-Semitism. New York Times. February 5, 2005, p A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleACS Photonics
AbbreviationACS Photonics
ISSN (online)2330-4022

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