How to format your references using the CEN Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CEN Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cohen J. Strategies against HIV/AIDS. Australia shows its neighbors how to stem an epidemic. Introduction. Science. 2014;345:152–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gonnermann HM, Mukhopadhyay S. Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle. Nature. 2009;459:560–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Davé UP, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG. Gene therapy insertional mutagenesis insights. Science. 2004;303:333.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rewitz KF, Yamanaka N, Gilbert LI, O’Connor MB. The insect neuropeptide PTTH activates receptor tyrosine kinase torso to initiate metamorphosis. Science. 2009;326:1403–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Reay D. Digital Signal Processing and Applications with the OMAP-L138 eXperimenter. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Melillo G, editor. Hypoxia and Cancer: Biological Implications and Therapeutic Opportunities. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Luersen MA, Lopez RH. A Genetic Algorithm for Optimization of Hybrid Laminated Composite Plates. In: Muñoz-Rojas PA, editor. Optimization of Structures and Components. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013. p. 49–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CEN Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Local Trails Make Ant Cooperation Possible And Might Provide Pointers For Robots [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Income Security Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Sep. Report No.: AA-97-11(3).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Winkelhake B. Verbal argumentativeness: A study of retail store managers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. Perot Tells It His Way - Take It Or Leave It. New York Times. 1992 Jun 7;43.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCEN Case Reports
AbbreviationCEN Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2192-4449

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