How to format your references using the CEN Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CEN Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lawler A. BROOKHAVEN LAB: Forbes Loses in Fallout From Reactor Fight. Science. 2000;289:2021b.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lionetti D, Agapie T. Inorganic chemistry: How calcium affects oxygen formation. Nature. 2014;513:495–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Haile-Selassie Y, Suwa G, White TD. Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolution. Science. 2004;303:1503–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schoenberg R, Kamber BS, Collerson KD, Moorbath S. Tungsten isotope evidence from approximately 3.8-Gyr metamorphosed sediments for early meteorite bombardment of the Earth. Nature. 2002;418:403–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kaut Roth C, Faulkner WH Jr. Review Questions for MRI. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Chang M, Hwang W-Y, Chen M-P, Müller W, editors. Edutainment Technologies. Educational Games and Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality Applications: 6th International Conference on E-learning and Games, Edutainment 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, September 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fitzclarence L. Reflections on the Deakin Assemblage Of/For the Critical Project. In: Tinning R, Sirna K, editors. Education, Social Justice and the Legacy of Deakin University: Reflections of the Deakin Diaspora. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011. p. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CEN Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Two Teams Of Scientists Have Created A New State Of Matter [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Computer-Based Patient Records: Improved Planning and Project Management Are Critical to Achieving Two-Way VA-DOD Health Data Exchange. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 May. Report No.: GAO-04-811T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ringberg JE. Daily life at Cerro León, an Early Intermediate period highland settlement in the Moche Valley, Peru [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. 911 Call Is Held as Evidence If Victim Cannot Testify. New York Times. 2006 Jun 20;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCEN Case Reports
AbbreviationCEN Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2192-4449

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