How to format your references using the CEN Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CEN Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schiermeier Q. Pity poor postdocs. Nature. 2005;434:540–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Page SL, Hawley RS. Chromosome choreography: the meiotic ballet. Science. 2003;301:785–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mason N, Biercuk MJ, Marcus CM. Local gate control of a carbon nanotube double quantum dot. Science. 2004;303:655–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yokoyama Y, Esat TM, Thompson WG, Thomas AL, Webster JM, Miyairi Y, et al. Rapid glaciation and a two-step sea level plunge into the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature. 2018;559:603–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Malpass DB. Introduction to Industrial Polyethylene. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. García-Prada JC, Castejón C, editors. New Trends in Educational Activity in the Field of Mechanism and Machine Theory. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Grinin L, Korotayev A. The Great Convergence and Globalization: How Former Colonies Became the World Economic Locomotives. In: Korotayev A, editor. Great Divergence and Great Convergence: A Global Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 115–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CEN Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Six Different Ways To Think About ‘Extinction’ [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Reports Issued in August 1987. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Aug. Report No.: 134039.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ahn M. Student Perception of Language Achievement and Learner Autonomy in a Blended Korean Language Course: The Case Study of Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW, Hurdle J. Harrisburg Sees Path to Restructuring Debts Without Bankruptcy Filing. New York Times. 2013 Jul 25;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCEN Case Reports
AbbreviationCEN Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2192-4449

Other styles