How to format your references using the Heart citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hirschmann M. Earth science: a wet mantle conductor? Nature 2006;439:E3; discussion E3-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flannigan DJ, Suslick KS. Plasma formation and temperature measurement during single-bubble cavitation. Nature 2005;434:52–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee I-H, Shin S, Choi T-L. Materials science. Building supermicelles from simple polymers. Science 2015;347:1310–1.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bergman TJ, Beehner JC, Cheney DL, et al. Hierarchical classification by rank and kinship in baboons. Science 2003;302:1234–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dorsey JR. Y-Size Your Business. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2009.
An edited book
Matyáš R. Primary Explosives. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Maffei FA. Assessment of Cardiovascular Function. In: Lucking SE, Maffei FA, Tamburro RF, et al., eds. Pediatric Critical Care Study Guide: Text and Review. London: : Springer 2012. 94–132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart.

Blog post
Andrew E. Sustainability Science Is A New Academic Discipline. But Is It Sustainable? IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tongass Timber Reform Act: Implementation of the Act’s Contract Modification Requirements. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kang H. Essays on Methodologies in Contingent Valuation and the Sustainable Management of Common Pool Resources. 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams TC. Radical Ambition. New York Times. 2017;:MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart
ISSN (print)1355-6037
ISSN (online)1468-201X
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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