How to format your references using the Heart citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain E. The class of 2005. Spain: a physicist keen to put things in order. Science 2005;310:520–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang Y, Robinson GH. Chemistry. Building a Lewis base with boron. Science 2011;333:530–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Engler HS, Spencer KC, Gilbert LE. Preventing cyanide release from leaves. Nature 2000;406:144–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Soo VWC, Cheng H-Y, Kwan BW, et al. de novo synthesis of a bacterial toxin/antitoxin system. Sci Rep 2014;4:4807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong ACM, Hui SC. Multimedia Engineering. Chichester, England: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2006.
An edited book
Zinicovscaia I, Cepoi L, editors. Cyanobacteria for Bioremediation of Wastewaters. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Braff MH, Gallo RL. Antimicrobial Peptides: An Essential Component of the Skin Defensive Barrier. In: Shafer WM, ed. Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2006. 91–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart.

Blog post
Luntz S. New Methane-Processing Microbes Hint At Common Metabolizing Ancestor. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Advanced Automation System: Implications of Problems and Recent Changes. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hutson MD. Three Essays on Macroeconomic Forecasting. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Encore, for the Curlers and Their Pants. New York Times. 2014;:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart
ISSN (print)1355-6037
ISSN (online)1468-201X
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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