How to format your references using the Heart citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith O. Biomedicine. Nota bene. In the nic of time. Science 2001;294:2118.
A journal article with 2 authors
Korb MA, Thakkar U. SPORE series winner. Facilitating scientific investigations and training data scientists. Science 2011;333:534–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takahashi T, Svoboda K, Malinow R. Experience strengthening transmission by driving AMPA receptors into synapses. Science 2003;299:1585–8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Quigg A, Finkel ZV, Irwin AJ, et al. The evolutionary inheritance of elemental stoichiometry in marine phytoplankton. Nature 2003;425:291–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams F, Aizawa K. The Bounds of Cognition. Oxford, UK: : Wiley-Blackwell 2010.
An edited book
Weyand B, Dominici M, Hass R, et al., editors. Mesenchymal Stem Cells - Basics and Clinical Application I. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
López-Ibáñez M, Blum C. Beam-ACO Based on Stochastic Sampling: A Case Study on the TSP with Time Windows. In: Stützle T, ed. Learning and Intelligent Optimization: Third International Conference, LION 3, Trento, Italy, January 14-18, 2009. Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2009. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. U.S. Air Force Rocket Explodes One Minute After Launching. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to Fully Implement Major Initiatives to Save Billions of Dollars. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kashyap SK. Bit Error Rate Performance of 4x2 Space-Time MIMO-OFDM Conjugate Cancellation Techniques. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cohen P. Storms Lead Jobs to Fall; First Decline In 7 Years. New York Times. 2017;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart
ISSN (print)1355-6037
ISSN (online)1468-201X
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles