How to format your references using the Archives of Pharmacal Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pharmacal Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roederer M (2013) Leonard Herzenberg (1931-2013). Nature 504:34
A journal article with 2 authors
Oliveri P, Davidson EH (2007) Development. Built to run, not fail. Science 315:1510–1511
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-Shem A, Frolow F, Nelson N (2003) Crystal structure of plant photosystem I. Nature 426:630–635
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Piatkevich KD, Malashkevich VN, Morozova KS, et al (2013) Extended Stokes shift in fluorescent proteins: chromophore-protein interactions in a near-infrared TagRFP675 variant. Sci Rep 3:1847

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf T (2006) Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Jain PK (2013) Financial Management Practices: An Empirical Study of Indian Corporates. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang F-L, Zhu J (2013) An Experimental Study of Drilling Small and Deep Blind Holes with an Abrasive Water Jet. In: Qi E, Shen J, Dou R (eds) Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management: Theory and Apply of Industrial Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 33–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pharmacal Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) The Sun Has Been Spotless For More Than Two Weeks. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/the-sun-has-been-spotless-for-more-than-two-weeks/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Exchange Programs: Inventory of International Educational, Cultural, and Training Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jaime AA (2017) “Cockroach centuries”: The cockroach image as the conduit for the marginalized beat woman and artist in Elise Cowen’s cockroach poetry. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2003) Along The Waterfront, Politics And a Purge. New York Times 147

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roederer 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Oliveri and Davidson 2007; Roederer 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Oliveri and Davidson 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Piatkevich et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pharmacal Research
AbbreviationArch. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0253-6269
ISSN (online)1976-3786
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
Drug Discovery

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