How to format your references using the Archives of Pharmacal Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pharmacal Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Humphries C (2013) Latency: A sleeping giant. Nature 502:S14-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Galant R, Carroll SB (2002) Evolution of a transcriptional repression domain in an insect Hox protein. Nature 415:910–913
A journal article with 3 authors
Bielawski CW, Benitez D, Grubbs RH (2002) An “endless” route to cyclic polymers. Science 297:2041–2044
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Berthe M, Stiufiuc R, Grandidier B, et al (2008) Probing the carrier capture rate of a single quantum level. Science 319:436–438

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li F (2006) Developing Chemical Information Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bontempi B, Silva AJ, Christen Y (eds) (2007) Memories: Molecules and Circuits. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Wang T-J, Yuan S, Ju J, et al (2016) Lasing Actions Inside a Femtosecond Laser Filament in Air. In: Bandrauk AD, Lorin E, Moloney JV (eds) Laser Filamentation: Mathematical Methods and Models. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 121–146

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pharmacal Research.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Polar Bear Shatters Previous Dive Record While Stalking Seals. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) U.S. Economic Aid for the West Bank and Gaza. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Donohue J (2010) Resolving Past Liabilities for Future Reduction in Greenhouse Gases; Nuclear Energy and the Outstanding Federal Liability of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Daoud K (2017) The French Disconnection. New York Times A27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Humphries 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Galant and Carroll 2002; Humphries 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galant and Carroll 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Berthe et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pharmacal Research
AbbreviationArch. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0253-6269
ISSN (online)1976-3786
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
Drug Discovery

Other styles