How to format your references using the Archives of Pharmacal Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pharmacal Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gardiner JR (2015) Ecology: Foraging further. Nature 526:646
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller JR, Simon P (2008) Materials science. Electrochemical capacitors for energy management. Science 321:651–652
A journal article with 3 authors
Ravishankara AR, Daniel JS, Portmann RW (2009) Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century. Science 326:123–125
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bawden GW, Thatcher W, Stein RS, et al (2001) Tectonic contraction across Los Angeles after removal of groundwater pumping effects. Nature 412:812–815

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
von Eye A, Mun E-Y (2012) Log-Linear Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Slobounov S, Sebastianelli W (eds) (2006) Foundations of Sport-Related Brain Injuries. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
de Asis ED, Li Y, Austin AJ, et al (2010) Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscopy with Applications to Biology and Electronics. In: Bhushan B (ed) Scanning Probe Microscopy in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 129–168

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pharmacal Research.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) IBM Watson set to battle brain cancers. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Personnel Security: Pass and Security Clearance Data for the Executive Office of the President. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krutsinger R (2014) Evaluation of Grassland Restoration Success in Illinois Using Indicators of Ecosystem Function. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Sorkin AR (2017) Sale of D.C. United Is Said to Be Considered. New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gardiner 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Miller and Simon 2008; Gardiner 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Simon 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Bawden et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pharmacal Research
AbbreviationArch. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0253-6269
ISSN (online)1976-3786
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
Drug Discovery

Other styles