How to format your references using the Archives of Pharmacal Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pharmacal Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Babcock DF (2003) Development. Smelling the roses? Science 299:1993–1994
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller F-J, Loring JF (2014) Network biology: A compass for stem-cell differentiation. Nature 513:498–499
A journal article with 3 authors
Ramer MS, Priestley JV, McMahon SB (2000) Functional regeneration of sensory axons into the adult spinal cord. Nature 403:312–316
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang K, Titchener JG, Kruk SS, et al (2018) Quantum metasurface for multiphoton interference and state reconstruction. Science 361:1104–1108

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trimble MR, George MS (2010) Biological Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Özcan A, Zizka J, Nagamalai D (eds) (2011) Recent Trends in Wireless and Mobile Networks: Third International Conferences, WiMo 2011 and CoNeCo 2011, Ankara, Turkey, June 26-28, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lahiry A, Datta A, Tripathy S (2016) Active and Entire Candidate Sector Channel Utilization Based Close Loop Antenna Array Amplitude Control Technique for UMTS and CDMA Networks to Counter Non Uniform Cell Breathing. In: Berretti S, Thampi SM, Dasgupta S (eds) Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications: Volume 2. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 33–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pharmacal Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) This Once-Stable Antarctic Region Has Suddenly Started Melting. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Content Analysis: A Methodology for Structuring and Analyzing Written Material. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reehal G (2012) Designing Low Power and High Performance Network-on-Chip Communication Architectures for Nanometer SoCs. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Corkery M (2017) Sale at Lord & Taylor: Start-Up Is Moving In. New York Times A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Babcock 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Babcock 2003; Müller and Loring 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller and Loring 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pharmacal Research
AbbreviationArch. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (print)0253-6269
ISSN (online)1976-3786
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
Drug Discovery

Other styles