How to format your references using the Biotechnology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Leisinger, Business needs to embrace sustainability targets, Nature. 528 (2015) 165.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.V. Blagosklonny, A.B. Pardee, Conceptual biology: unearthing the gems, Nature. 416 (2002) 373.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Ye, B. Cong, D. Ye, The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km, Nature. 407 (2000) 734–736.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.W. Park, G.B. Pier, M.T. Hinkes, M. Bernfield, Exploitation of syndecan-1 shedding by Pseudomonas aeruginosa enhances virulence, Nature. 411 (2001) 98–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Henry-Labordère, Virtual Roaming Systems for GSM, GPRS and UMTS, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2009.
An edited book
P. Blanchard, Mathematical Analysis of Urban Spatial Networks, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Travascio, W.Y. Gu, Novel Video-FRAP Method for the Determination of Anisotropic Diffusion: Principles and Optimization, in: A.J. McGoron, C.-Z. Li, W.-C. Lin (Eds.), 25th Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference 2009, 15 – 17 May 2009, Miami, Florida, USA, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 9–10.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Man-Made Chemical Pollutants Could Be Making The Polar Bear Penis Bone More Fragile, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Assistance System Should Be Changed To Permit Greater Involvement by State Legislatures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.T. Parsons, Metal-catalyzed annulations of strained cycloalkanes, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Induct Steinbrenner? Let’s Think About This, New York Times. (2010) B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology Reports
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Rep. (Amst.)
ISSN (print)2215-017X

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