How to format your references using the Biotechnology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.T. Erler, Cancer: Disabling defences in the brain, Nature. 508 (2014) 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J. Harms, J.W. Thornton, Historical contingency and its biophysical basis in glucocorticoid receptor evolution, Nature. 512 (2014) 203–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Nimmerjahn, F. Kirchhoff, F. Helmchen, Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo, Science. 308 (2005) 1314–1318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Shechter, A. London, Y. Kuperman, A. Ronen, A. Rolls, A. Chen, M. Schwartz, Hypothalamic neuronal toll-like receptor 2 protects against age-induced obesity, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1254.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Jones, J. Burger, Configuring SAP® ERP Financials and Controlling, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009.
An edited book
A. Düsterhöft, M. Klettke, K.-D. Schewe, eds., Conceptual Modelling and Its Theoretical Foundations: Essays Dedicated to Bernhard Thalheim on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Haque, P. Guo, Membrane-Embedded Channel of Bacteriophage Phi29 DNA-Packaging Motor for Translocation and Sensing of Double-Stranded DNA, in: S.M. Iqbal, R. Bashir (Eds.), Nanopores: Sensing and Fundamental Biological Interactions, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2011: pp. 77–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology Reports.

Blog post
S. Luntz, New Metal-Air Battery Drives Car 1800Km Without Recharge, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Available in Many Schools; Actions Taken to Restrict Them Differ by State and Locality, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Yang, A comparison of unsupervised learning techniques for detection of medical abuse in automobile claims, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, At the End, the Telltale Runners’ Bags, New York Times. (2013) D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology Reports
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Rep. (Amst.)
ISSN (print)2215-017X

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