# How to format your references using the Biomacromolecules citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomacromolecules. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
(1)
Cyranoski, D. Referendum Stalls Japanese Nuclear Power Strategy. Nature 2001, 411 (6839), 729.
A journal article with 2 authors
(1)
St Laurent, L. C.; Thurnherr, A. M. Intense Mixing of Lower Thermocline Water on the Crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature 2007, 448 (7154), 680–683.
A journal article with 3 authors
(1)
Mathis, D.; Vence, L.; Benoist, C. Beta-Cell Death during Progression to Diabetes. Nature 2001, 414 (6865), 792–798.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
(1)
Langevin, Y.; Douté, S.; Vincendon, M.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.; Schmitt, B.; Forget, F. No Signature of Clear CO2 Ice from the “cryptic” Regions in Mars’ South Seasonal Polar Cap. Nature 2006, 442 (7104), 790–792.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
(1)
Zaragoza Dörwald, F. Side Reactions in Organic Synthesis; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2004.
An edited book
(1)
Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses; O’Connell, A. F., Nichols, J. D., Karanth, K. U., Eds.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
(1)
Zhang, Q.; Canova, M. Output Feedback Control of Automotive Air Conditioning System Using $$H_{\infty }$$ Technique. In Automotive Air Conditioning: Optimization, Control and Diagnosis; Li, S. E., Deng, K., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp 73–95.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomacromolecules.

Blog post
(1)
Andrew, D. Why UPS Drivers Don’t Turn Left And You Probably Shouldn’t Either https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/why-ups-drivers-dont-turn-left-and-you-probably-shouldnt-either/ (accessed 2018 -10 -30).

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
(1)
Government Accountability Office. Inquiry About the Office of Telecommunications Policy; B-151192; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1974.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
(1)
Stanton, B. On Location: Race and Family in the Poetry of Sonia Sanchez, June Jordan, and Cathy Song. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2009.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(1)
Gardiner, K. Sing, Memory. New York Times. February 21, 2016, p BR10.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.