How to format your references using the Biomacromolecules citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomacromolecules. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. World View: Moment of Reckoning. Nature 2010, 464 (7291), 975.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deplancke, B.; Verstrepen, K. J. Genetics. Variable Outcome of Mutations. Science 2012, 335 (6064), 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reyners, M.; Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Stuart, G. The Role of Fluids in Lower-Crustal Earthquakes near Continental Rifts. Nature 2007, 446 (7139), 1075–1078.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Painter, H. J.; Morrisey, J. M.; Mather, M. W.; Vaidya, A. B. Specific Role of Mitochondrial Electron Transport in Blood-Stage Plasmodium Falciparum. Nature 2007, 446 (7131), 88–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf, T. Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
Sustainability Assessment Tools in Higher Education Institutions: Mapping Trends and Good Practices Around the World; Caeiro, S., Filho, W. L., Jabbour, C., Azeiteiro, U. M., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Weber-Jahnke, J. H. Modelling of Longitudinal Information Systems with Graph Grammars. In Applications of Graph Transformations with Industrial Relevance: Third International Symposium, AGTIVE 2007, Kassel, Germany, October 10-12, 2007, Revised Selected and Invited Papers; Schürr, A., Nagl, M., Zündorf, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp 59–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomacromolecules.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Four New Spider Species Found In Southern Africa (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of FAA’s Collegiate Training Initiative as Mandated in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012; GAO-12-996R; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, W. A. Middle School Students’ Experiences on a Science Museum Field Trip as Preparation for Future Learning. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by RACHEL LEE HARRIS. Love That Look, Wonder Woman. New York Times. July 5, 2010, p C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomacromolecules
ISSN (print)1525-7797
ISSN (online)1526-4602
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

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